Applying IS-MP-IA model and the Taylor rule to selected Southeast European economies (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Serbia) we find that the change of effective exchange rate positively affects output, while the change of the world interest rate negatively affects output or it does not affect the output at all, and additional world output would help to increase output of the selected economies.
A lower ratio of government consumption spending to GDP would also increase the output of the selected economies. Hence, fiscal prudence is needed, and the conventional approach of real depreciation to stimulate exports and raise real output does not apply to the selected Southeast Europe economies.
When private household consumption is employed in the model, the coefficient on government spending to nominal GDP is insignificant implying that Ricardian equivalence does hold for the selected countries.
This paper reviews the binomial and trinomial option pricing models and their convergence to the Black-Scholes model result. These models are generalized for the European and American options. The trinomial models are said to be more accurate than the binomial when fewer steps are modelled. These models are widely used for the usual vanilla option types, European or American options, that respectively can be exercised only at the expiration date and at any time before the expiration date. The results are supportive of the conventional wisdom that trinomial option pricing models such as the Kamrad-Ritchken model and the Boyle model are converging faster than the binomial models. When binomial models are compared in terms of convergence, the most efficient model is the Jarrow-Rudd model. This paper concludes that improved binomial models such as the Haahtela model are converging faster to the BS model result. After some trials, binomial distribution follows log-normal distribution assumed by the Black-Scholes model.
Background: This article examines the productivity of domestic firms in the case of the foreign ownership.
Objectives: Foreign direct investments affect the competitive competences of domestic firms; thus, the objective is to see the way foreign ownership drives the growth of domestic firms.
Methods/Approach: The study uses standard models to analyse productivity; they are applied to data sets of Macedonia, a Southeast European economy, and it is concluded that foreign ownership has a major role in domestic firms’ restructuring processes increasing their productivity.
Results: Surely, the results support the principal notion that the augmented presence of foreign firms is to influence the restructuring and business activity of domestic companies positively.
Conclusions: Our analysis verifies that foreign ownership has influenced the overall economy and particularly domestic-owned firms with the constant increase in employment and especially direct export.
In this paper non-convexity in economics has been revisited. Shapley-Folkman-Lyapunov theorem has been tested with the asymmetric auctions where bidders follow log-concave probability distributions (non-convex preferences). Ten standard statistical distributions have been used to describe the bidders’ behavior. In principle what is been tested is that equilibrium price can be achieved where the sum of large number non-convex sets is convex (approximately), so that optimization is possible. Convexity is thus very important in economics.