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  • Author: Mico Apostolov x
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Foreign Direct Investments Induced Innovation? A Case Study − Macedonia


This paper, while analysing innovation in Southeast Europe, and in particular the case study of Macedonia, focuses on the basic ties between foreign direct investments and innovation. Foreign direct investment is usually defined as dominant or controlling ownership of a company in one country (the host country), by an entity based in another country. The concept of industry-government- university relationships interprets the change from a dominating industry-government duo in the ‘industrial society’ to a growing triadic relationship between industry-government-university in the ‘knowledge society’.

From the beginning of the transition process, foreign direct investments have been a priority, an essential pillar that moves the society forward towards a developed market economy. In addition, as the influx of capital increases it inevitably brings with it increased innovation. Hence we examine the possibility that these two indicators have a positive and upward ascent and facilitate the development of the economy.

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Aggregate Demand–Inflation Adjustment Model Applied to Southeast European Economies


Applying IS-MP-IA model and the Taylor rule to selected Southeast European economies (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Serbia) we find that the change of effective exchange rate positively affects output, while the change of the world interest rate negatively affects output or it does not affect the output at all, and additional world output would help to increase output of the selected economies.

A lower ratio of government consumption spending to GDP would also increase the output of the selected economies. Hence, fiscal prudence is needed, and the conventional approach of real depreciation to stimulate exports and raise real output does not apply to the selected Southeast Europe economies.

When private household consumption is employed in the model, the coefficient on government spending to nominal GDP is insignificant implying that Ricardian equivalence does hold for the selected countries.

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Foreign-Versus Domestic-Owned firms in the Predicament ‘Cui bono?’


Background: This article examines the productivity of domestic firms in the case of the foreign ownership.

Objectives: Foreign direct investments affect the competitive competences of domestic firms; thus, the objective is to see the way foreign ownership drives the growth of domestic firms.

Methods/Approach: The study uses standard models to analyse productivity; they are applied to data sets of Macedonia, a Southeast European economy, and it is concluded that foreign ownership has a major role in domestic firms’ restructuring processes increasing their productivity.

Results: Surely, the results support the principal notion that the augmented presence of foreign firms is to influence the restructuring and business activity of domestic companies positively.

Conclusions: Our analysis verifies that foreign ownership has influenced the overall economy and particularly domestic-owned firms with the constant increase in employment and especially direct export.

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Shapley-Folkman-Lyapunov theorem and Asymmetric First price auctions


In this paper non-convexity in economics has been revisited. Shapley-Folkman-Lyapunov theorem has been tested with the asymmetric auctions where bidders follow log-concave probability distributions (non-convex preferences). Ten standard statistical distributions have been used to describe the bidders’ behavior. In principle what is been tested is that equilibrium price can be achieved where the sum of large number non-convex sets is convex (approximately), so that optimization is possible. Convexity is thus very important in economics.

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