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Open access

Stanisław Mazur, Michał Możdżeń and Marek Oramus

Abstract

The article focuses on the problem of the civil service’s dependence on its political superiors in Poland in 1996–2017. It aims to analyse the motivations of politicians responsible for civil service reforms and to assess the impact of these reforms on the effectiveness of the corps’ functioning. The authors conceptualise the problem of politicisation of the civil service by referring to the theory of politicisation adding an extra dimension of political ideas and institutions as an important factor of change in Poland’s public administration system. The article describes the stages of civil service reform in Poland over the last twenty years, taking into account the political context, the most important postulated changes and the associated controversies with reference to the concepts outlined in the theoretical part. The study also comprises a relevant literature review based on a number of sources, including the reports published by the Head of the Civil Service in Poland, international databases (including Quality of Government) and specialist reports with a particular emphasis on research devoted to Central Europe. The findings paint a multi-layered and nuanced picture of the evolution of the Polish civil service and its strong associations with the issue of the so-called “unfinished transformation”. In addition the article confirms that both the instrumentalisation of institutions by the “camp” of political opportunists and their formal, radical reconstruction by the “ideological contrarians” resulting in the centralisation of power around the ruling parties have had a negative effect on the quality of civil service functioning in Poland.

Open access

Michał Mazur, Danuta Kaczmarek, Jarosław Domaradzki, Damian Wojcieszak, Piotr Mazur and Eugeniusz Prociow

Abstract

Thin films were deposited using modified, high energy magnetron sputtering method from Ti-Nd mosaic targets. The amount of neodymium dopant incorporated into two sets of thin films was estimated to be 0.8 and 8.5 at.%, by means of energy dispersive spectroscopy. On the basis of x-ray diffraction method, the type of crystalline structure and crystallites size were evaluated directly after the deposition process and after additional post-process annealing at 800 °C temperature. The influence of annealing on the surface properties was evaluated with the aid of atomic force microscopy. Uniformity of the dopant distribution in titanium dioxide matrix was examined with the aid of secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Additionally, using atomic force microscope, diversification and roughness of the surface was determined. Chemical bonds energy at the surface of TiO2:Nd thin films was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method. Wettability measurements were performed to determine contact angles, critical surface tensions and surface free energy of prepared coatings. On the basis of performed investigations it was found, that both factors, the amount of neodymium dopant and the post-process annealing, fundamentally influenced the physicochemical properties of prepared thin films.

Open access

M. Mazur, J. Domaradzki and D. Wojcieszak

Abstract

In this paper, the influence of vanadium doping on optical and electrical properties of titanium dioxide thin films has been discussed. The (Ti-V)Ox thin films was deposited on silicon and Corning glass substrates using high energy reactive magnetron sputtering process. Measurements performed with the aid of x-ray diffraction revealed, that deposited thin film was composed of nanocrystalline mixture of TiO2-anatase, V2O3 and β-V2O5 phases. The amount of vanadium in the thin film, estimated on the basis of energy dispersive spectroscopy measurement, was equal to 3 at. %. Optical properties were evaluated based on transmission and reflection measurements. (Ti-V)Ox thin film was well transparent and the absorption edge was shifted by only 11 nm towards longer wavelengths in comparison to undoped TiO2. Electrical measurements revealed, that investigated thin film was transparent oxide semiconductors with n-type electrical conduction and resistivity of about 2.7 · 105 Ωcm at room temperature. Additionally, measured I-V characteristics of TOS-Si heterostructure were nonlinear and asymmetrical.

Open access

Michał Mazur and Antoni Niederliński

Abstract

A new approach to solving realistic car assembly scheduling problems for mixed model assembly line is presented. It is proposed to decompose the problem into two subproblems: 1) a sequencing problem that generates admissible car sequences fulfilling capacity constraints for all car models in the production plan, 2) a scheduling problem that determines an admissible car sequence with shortest makespan. The details of this approach are illustrated by a simple numerical example.

Open access

Michał Górski, Tomasz Lekszycki, Krzysztof Buśko and Joanna Mazur-Różycka

Summary

Study aim: estimate reaction forces and muscle torque in lower limb joints during the Naeryo chagi technique in taekwondo.

Material and methods: the parameters of the Naeryo chagi kick were measured with a Vicon motion tracking system comprising ten MX T40S cameras, two reference cameras and four AMTI BP600900-2000 force plates. Additional measurements were performed using the BTS-4AP-2K force analysis system equipped with a WB-4AP punching bag. The acquired raw data were processed and synchronized using Matlab v.R2007a software. A computer simulation created on the basis of the adopted mathematical model was used to identify reaction forces and control moments.

Results: the highest joint loads occurred at the moment when the striking leg reversed its movement direction from rising to rapidly falling towards the target. The knee and ankle joints of the supporting leg were subject to greatest reaction forces and muscle torque.

Conclusions: it is recommended to follow an exercise routine aimed at strengthening and stabilizing the structures of motor system subject to the greatest load.

Open access

Michał Mazur and Antoni Niederliński

Abstract

A Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) tool for solving the problem discussed in Part 1 of the paper has been designed. It is outlined and discussed in the paper. The program has been used for solving a real-world car assembly scheduling problem.

Open access

Damian Wojcieszak, Michał Mazur, Danuta Kaczmarek, Jerzy Morgiel, Agata Poniedziałek, Jarosław Domaradzki and Aleksandra Czeczot

Abstract

Titanium dioxide thin films doped with the same amount of neodymium were prepared using two different magnetron sputtering methods. Thin films of anatase structure were deposited with the aid of Low Pressure Hot Target Magnetron Sputtering, while rutile coatings were manufactured using High Energy Reactive Magnetron Sputtering process. The thin films composition was determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy and the amount of the dopant was equal to 1 at. %. Structural properties were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy and revealed that anatase films had fibrous structure, while rutile had densely packed columnar structure. Atomic force microscopy investigations showed that the surface of both films was homogenous and consisted of nanocrystalline grains. Photocatalytic activity was assessed based on the phenol decomposition. Results showed that both thin films were photocatalytically active, however coating with anatase phase decomposed higher amount of phenol. The transparency of both thin films was high and equal to ca. 80% in the visible wavelength range. The photoluminescence intensity was much higher in case of the coating with rutile structure.

Open access

Michal Mazur, Danuta Kaczmarek, Eugeniusz Prociow, Jaroslaw Domaradzki, Damian Wojcieszak and Jakub Bocheński

Abstract

In this work the results of investigations of the titanium-niobium oxides thin films have been reported. The thin films were manufactured with the aid of a modified reactive magnetron sputtering process. The aim of the research was the analysis of structural, optical and electrical properties of the deposited thin films. Additionally, the influence of post-process annealing on the properties of studied coatings has been presented. The as-deposited coatings were amorphous, while annealing at 873 K caused a structural change to the mixture of TiO2 anatase-rutile phases. The prepared thin films exhibited good transparency with transmission level of ca. 50 % and low resistivity varying from 2 Ωcm to 5×10−2 Ωcm, depending on the time and temperature of annealing. What is worth to emphasize, the sign of Seebeck coefficient changed after the annealing process from the electron to hole type electrical conduction.

Open access

Krzysztof Kalinski, Marek Galewski and Michał Mazur

Abstract

The paper concerns development of original method of optimal control at energy performance index and its application to dynamic processes surveillance of some mechatronic systems. The latter concerns chatter vibration surveillance during highspeed slender milling of rigid details, as well as motion control of two-wheeled mobile platform. Results of on-line computer simulations and real performance on the target objects reflect a great efficiency of the processes surveillance

Open access

Michał Wietrzyński, Joanna Mazur-Różycka, Jan Gajewski, Radosław Michalski, Sebastian Różycki and Krzysztof Buśko

Summary

Study aim: To determine and compare the muscle strength profile and muscle strength symmetry of kayakers and canoeists.

Material and methods: A total of 36 male participants participated in the study, including 25 kayakers and 9 canoeists. Measurements of maximum muscle torque were taken under static conditions for 10 muscle groups: flexors and extensors of the elbow, shoulder, knee, hip, and trunk. Muscle torque was allometrically scaled by body mass. To determine the muscle strength profiles of athletes in both disciplines, residual analysis was used. Two methods were utilized to assess and compare the muscle strength symmetry between left and right limbs. The first one is known as intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The second one is an asymmetry coefficient proposed by authors.

Results: The study showed that kayakers obtained lower rates of asymmetry indicators than canoeists in most muscle groups. An overall asymmetry coefficient amounted to 0.77 ± 0.20 and 0.99 ± 0.31 (p < 0.05) for kayakers and canoeists, respectively. Moreover, it was observed that the kayakers and canoeists had similar strength profile. The symmetry assessment of maximum muscle torque corresponds to the characteristics of the studied disciplines.

Conclusions: The intraclass correlation coefficient is recommended as a measure of strength symmetry for muscle groups comparisons. The asymmetry coefficient is recommended for comparison of individuals.