Michal Ferenc, Ondřej Sedláček, Roman Fuchs, Maurizio Fraissinet and David Storch
The probability of occurrence of bird species in towns/cities increases with their range sizes, and Rapoport’s rule states that range sizes increase with latitude. To test the hypothesis that the increasing number of bird species persisting in cities at higher latitudes of Europe is linked to their larger range sizes, we compiled data on bird communities of: a) 41 urban bird atlases; b) 37 city core zones from published sources; c) regions of nine grid cells of the EBCC Atlas of European Breeding Birds around each city. We tested whether the proportion of species from particular regional bird assemblages entering cities (i.e., proportional richness) was related to the geographical position, mean range size of regional avifaunas, proportion of vegetated areas and city habitat heterogeneity. The mean range sizes of the observed and randomly selected urban avifaunas were contrasted. The proportional richness of urban avifaunas was positively related to the geographic position and mean range size of birds in regional assemblages. The evidence favoured range sizes if considering the European range sizes or latitudinal extents, but was limited for global range sizes. Randomizations tended to show larger range sizes for the real avifaunas than in the randomly selected ones. For urban core zones, the results were less clear-cut with some evidence only in favour of the European range sizes. No role of vegetation or habitat heterogeneity was found. In conclusion, while vegetation availability or heterogeneity did not show any effects, spatial position and range sizes of birds in regional assemblages seemed to influence the proportional richness of cities and their core zones. Factors correlated with spatial position (e.g., climate) might increase the attractivity of particular cities to birds. However, the effects of range sizes indicated that urbanization possibly has more negative impacts on the avifauna in the regions occupied by less widespread species.
Agnieszka Grabias, Viktoriia Basykh, Jarosław Ferenc, Grzegorz Cieślak, Tadeusz Kulik and Michał Kopcewicz
Nanocrystalline Fe80-x-yCoxNiyCu1Nb3Si4B12 alloys were prepared by the annealing of amorphous ribbons. Primary crystallization of the alloys annealed at temperatures of between 500 and 550°C was studied by X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Magnetic properties of the alloys were investigated using a hysteresis loop tracer and vibrating sample magnetometer. The annealed ribbons are composed of a two-phase nanostructure consisting of bcc Fe-based grains embedded in an amorphous matrix. Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) measurements reveal a more advanced crystallization process in the surface layers when compared with the volume of the ribbons. The degree of saturation magnetization of the nanocrystalline alloys is of about 1.5 T. The coercive field varies from 1.0 to 6.5 A/m and peaks at an annealing temperature of 525°C. Magnetic softening of the nanocrystalline alloys observed after annealing at 550°C is correlated with a volume fraction of the nanocrystalline bcc phase.