Flight observations and carcass searches were carried out along distribution power lines in Slovakia. 77 km of 22 kV and 110 kV lines were marked on a total of 108 sections to evaluate the effectiveness of three types of bird flight diverters (FireFly Bird Diverter, RIBE Bird Flight Diverter and SWAN-FLIGHT Diverter) designed to increase power line visibility. Numbers of carcasses were compared before and after installation of the devices and reaction distances on marked power lines were surveyed. We observed a 93.5% reduction (93 vs. 6) in the number of fatalities under the marked power lines after line marking (06/2016–06/2019) compared to the period before installation (12/2014–02/2016). 2,296 flight reactions were observed and an estimated total of 41,885 individuals (57 bird species belonging to 13 orders) were recorded with their reactions to marked lines in the period 06/2016–06/2019. After installation of bird diverters, there was a low proportion of flight distance observations at the closest distance, i.e. up to 5 m, indicating that birds reacted further away from marked lines. Although we lack flight observations for the period before the installation of diverters, the reactions of birds at greater distances and reduced number of bird victims under marked lines indicate that all tested diverters have a positive effect on reducing the number of avian collisions with power lines.
Long-eared owls’ winter roosts located within forest, compared to their winter roosts in human settlements, often escape human attention. Only minimum information has been published about winter roosts located deep in the forest. During the years 2005 to 2016, we collected long-eared owl pellets at irregularly occupied forest winter roosts. Compared to the diet at winter roosts in human settlements, the long-eared owls roosting in the forest surprisingly significantly more frequently hunted the common vole. Moreover, we did not record higher consumption of forest mammal species in the diet of owls at forest winter roosts. Long-eared owls roosting in human settlements hunted significantly more birds. The results show that, despite the location of deep forest winter roosts, long-eared owls preferred hunting the common vole, i.e. hunting in open agricultural land. The study also points out the lack of knowledge about winter roosts located deep in the forest.
New records of Anisopodidae, Dixidae, Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Mycetophilidae,
Ptychopteridae and Thaumaleidae (Diptera) are presented from Muránska planina National Park
in the Gemer region in Central Slovakia. The material was obtained mainly in the years 2012–
2013 by means of Malaise traps and by individual collecting by the authors. Three species,
Keroplatus tipuloides Bosc, 1792, Mycomya trivittata (Zetterstedt, 1838), and Sciophila
geniculata Zetterstedt, 1838 are recorded from Slovakia for the first time.
A new species of Keroplatidae (Diptera: Sciaroidea), Macrocera rohaceki sp. nov., is described from the island of Mallorca (Spain). A further remarkable species, Paleoplatyura johnsoni Johannsen, 1910, hitherto only known from the Nearctic Region, is recorded from Sicily (Italy). New records of Isoneuromyia czernyi (Strobl, 1909) and I. pseudochracea (Landrock, 1925) from Slovakia are provided, including figures of the male terminalia. Their relationships to the widely distributed European species, I. semirufa (Meigen, 1818), are reconstructed using three mitochondrial DNA markers (12S, COI, cytb). A key to the European species of Isoneuromyia Brunetti, 1912 is also provided.
New records of Anisopodidae, Bibionidae, Cecidomyiidae, Keroplatidae and Mycetophilidae (Diptera) are presented from Muránska planina National Park (Slovakia) and the Czech Republic. The material was obtained mainly in the years 2009-2015 by means of Malaise traps and individual collecting. Three species are new to the Czech Republic, 1 to Bohemia, 3 to Moravia & Silesia and 10 to Slovakia. Several additional rare species are also recorded although they do not represent additions to the local faunas.