In the recent years, for specific goals of utilization, winter wheat breeding has been aimed on increasing total anthocyanins concentration in winter wheat grains considering their high antioxidant activity. The aim of research was to evaluate grain colour development in four wheat genotypes (ANK 28A and 62/0 purple pericarp, UC 66049 blue aleurone and Ilona red pericarp) during grain filling period. Grain samples from two replications of field experiment, established in the vegetation 2010/11, were taken in five to six sampling times. Total anthocyanins concentration was determined by spectrophotometer. The genotypes responded differently to the dynamics of total anthocyanins accumulation during grain filling. The process was described by linear and also by polynomial regression on the number of days post anthesis. Genotypes with purple pericarp reached the highest total anthocyanins concentration on the 22nd day post anthesis with increasing and decreasing before and after this sampling time, respectively. At maturity the highest total anthocyanins had UC 66049 (193.38 mg/kg). Newly bred genotype 62/0 had similar concentration (34.50 mg/kg) as its parent ANK 28A (37.80 mg/kg). At maturity, registered cultivar Ilona was about 93.7% lower in total anthocyanins concentration compared to ANK 28A. Significant variability in total anthocyanins concentration indicated that breeding for their increasing is possible.
Improving the micronutrients in food has become an important field of the Second Green Revolution. In recent years, minor bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, pigments and carotenoids, have attracted more and more interest from both researchers and food manufactures as health-promoting and disease-preventing effects in both in vitro and in vivo studies. One of plant pigments, wheat anthocyanins as plant phenolics are increasingly attractive as natural compounds positively affecting consumer´s health and condition moreover wheat is staple food source consumed usually daily. For a purple, blue, or red colour of wheat seed are responsible glycosylated cyanidins, delphinidins, malvinidins, pelargonidins, petunidins, and peonidins located in aleurone layer or pericarp, respectively. Other than white seed colour is not natural for common hexaploid wheat but this trait can be introduced from donors by aimed breeding programs. The way of wheat anthocyanins to provide positive effects for consumer´s physiology is limited due to their specific occurrence in seed parts usually removed during grain milling practice and lower stability during processing to foods
Plants have evolved to live in environments where they are often exposed to different stress factors. Being sessile, they have developed specific mechanisms that allow them to detect precisely environmental changes and respond to complex conditions, minimizing damage while conserving valuable resources for growth and reproduction. The cell wall polysaccharide β-D-glucan observed in some species of Poales can determine responses to various environmental factors in specific plant developmental stages. It is located in the outer epidermal layer, at the place of stress attack and therefore its metabolism could relate to response of plant to environmental factors within moderate, physiological range. Putative protective role of β-D-glucan during heat stress was indicated through naked oats with higher content of β-D-glucan. It appeared that oats with higher β-D-glucan content are better adapted to stress conditions. The presented article discusses the β-D-glucan as a possible protective mechanism in oat during (heat) stress conditions.
The effort to achieve higher yields at the required qualitative level has led to the intensive studying the problems of the rational usage of the titanium containing fertilisers by the agricultural research in the course the previous thirty years. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to evaluate the impact of two doses of Mg-Titanit (0.2 l/ha and 0.4 l/ha) on the formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass, also on the total chlorophyll in leaves, on the titanium and nitrogen content in the seeds and straw, on the quantity and quality of winter rape yield. The doses were applied two or three times on the leaves of winter rape (BBCH 50-52, BBCH 59, BBCH 66-67). The experiment was realized on the Haplic Chernozem (48°42´ N, 17°70´ E - Western Slovakia) during two farming years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011). The results showed that all three applications of Mg-Titanit in both doses stimulated the formation of aboveground and underground phytomass of winter rape. The highest growth of phytomass was detected after the second application. The application of Mg-Titanit in the growth phases BBCH 50-52 and BBCH 59 increased the contents of both chlorophylls (a and b), where the growth of chlorophyll b content was more considerable than the growth of chlorophyll a content. The third spraying by Mg-Titanit decreased the content of the total chlorophyll. The application of Mg-Titanit had the positive impact on the yield of seeds, straw and fat content in the winter oilseed rape seeds.
The total 43 Slovak spring barley genotypes with a year of cultivation or registration from 1938 to 2009 were evaluated in terms of selected parameters like protein, starch, and β-glucan contents. Collection of genetic resources consisted of barley malting qualities such as elite - A, standard quality - B, no malting quality - C and five genotypes of unspecified malting quality. Significant (P < 0.01) influence of genotype and environmental conditions (years) and also genotype × year interaction on protein, starch, and β-glucan content in the barley grain were detected. The highest average protein content was observed in genotypes from the group with undetermined malting quality. The protein and β-glucan contents in older genotypes were higher in comparison with more recent genotypes. The average starch content in both older and modern genotypes in the studied set was nearly identical, which confirms a high quality of the older malting varieties. According to malting quality groups, the highest average value of β-glucan content was in the group of no malting quality (C) and the lowest in the group of best malting quality (A), which is in correspondence with barley malting quality requirements. In individual years differences in the β-glucan content were found among genotypes. Despite the atypical years, good sources of β-glucan were found out along with modern genotypes such as Cyril and older genotypes such as Orbit and Vladan, but also historically old genotypes were created in the year 1946 such as Diosecký 802 and Slovenský Dunajský trh. Our study has confirmed that these genotypes are donors of not only significant agronomic traits but also qualitative properties, usable in the food industry.
Oil content, fatty acids profile, acid and saponification values of poppy seeds grown on two localities of the Slovak Republic were evaluated in the study. Statistically significant effects of locality, genotype and their interaction (P < 0.05) for numerous descriptors were proved by non-parametric tests. Results confirmed that variation in the analysed parameters was influenced by the colour of seeds. Ochre variety Redy contained the highest oil level in both localities (49.9 and 52.4%) and linoleic acid level (74.3 and 71.6%). White-seeded Racek and Albín had the highest acid value (2.8 and 2.4% of free fatty acids) and grey-seeded Malsar and blue-seeded Maratón contained the highest saponification value. Buddha, a high-morphine poppy variety, differed significantly in all monitored parameters. High negative interrelation between linoleic and oleic acids levels was observed. Oil content was positively correlated with linoleic acid and negatively with oleic acid. Weather conditions at the end of vegetation influenced the accumulation of oil and essential linoleic acid.
The aim of research was to analyse winter wheat of different grain colour and to compare newly bred coloured genotypes from our breeding in grain yield and technological and nutritional quality. The set of seven purple, five blue and four yellow wheats of different origin, including seven newly bred genotypes from Vígľaš-Pstruša, was evaluated in the field experiments established by randomised complete block design in two replications in Piešťany, in the vegetations 2012/13 and 2013/14. In seven wheat varieties differing in grain colours (selected after two of each colour plus control red variety Ilona) anthocyanin composition was evaluated by HPLC analysis. Significant differences were between growing years and among colour groups in most analysed traits. Blue grain newly bred K 3575 699/3 showed the highest anthocyanin content (by 33.5% higher compared to blue grain registered variety Scorpion). However, blue grain genotypes showed negative agronomic traits combined with low number and grain weight per spike and high plant height. In new purple variety PS Karkulka, declared grain yield and its quality were confirmed and the highest mineral content (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn) was found in selected set. Purple grain newly bred PS 5711 had lower anthocyanin content (by 17.7%), but in quality it was comparable to PS Karkulka. Varieties with yellow endosperm showed the highest number and weight of grains per spike, however it was significantly lower to Ilona. The breeding goal of coloured winter wheat is still to improve the grain yield as well as additional agronomics traits.
Parameters of Wheat Flour, Dough, and Bread Fortified by Buckwheat and Millet Flours
The composite flours were created from basic wheat flour and from buckwheat and millet flours used as additives in the weight ratio of 5-30%. Basic technological parameters of flours (ash content, wet gluten, gluten swelling, sedimentation index, falling number), rheological properties of dough, and sensory parameters of baked bread loaves (weight, specific volume, aroma, taste, structure) were studied. Additives influenced all traits of flours, doughs, and baked breads. From the technological and sensory points of view, baked breads with the addition of buckwheat were accepted up to the addition of 20% and breads with millet up to 5% (even though taste and flavour were accepted up to 15% addition).
Oats are important cereals. Oats are a good source of protein and lipids, polyphenolics, phenolic acids, flavonoids and avenanthramides. Avenanthramides is phenolic group, which is unique in oats and have antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and anti-proliferative effect. The aim of study is determination of the majoritarian avenanthramides (2c, 2p and 2f) and phenolic acids (p-coumaric and ferulic) in selected varieties of oat (Avena sativa L.) grown in two consecutive years using the HPLC method. The oats were exposed to ultrasound supported extraction (two 15 min cycles).The simultaneous separation was performed using C18 type of stationary phase. The method showed a good linearity in the concentration range 0.04 - 5.24 μg/mL for p-coumaric acid, 0.04 - 5.13 μg/mL for ferulic acid, 0.19 - 24.5 μg/mL for avenanthramide 2c, 0.53 - 17.1 μg/mL for avenanthramide 2p, 0.8 - 25.6 μg/mL for avenanthramide 2f. Correlation coefficients were higher than 0.9997. Detector operated at a wavelength 320 nm. The repeatability of the method was evaluated in three concentration levels with satisfactory results for each analyte. The content of both phenolic acids is significantly lower (50- - 100-times) compared to the total content of avenanthramides in both years’ harvests for all analyzed varieties. Content of total avenanthramides was the highest in varieties Racoon (723.28 mg/kg) followed by Oliver (578.59 mg/kg) and Kamil (384.17 mg/kg).
The influence of different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) ions (50 and 100 mg/kg soil) on growth, photosynthetic pigment content, Cd, and iron accumulation in faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Aštar) was studied under laboratory conditions. No significant changes were observed in the growth parameters of shoots (length, fresh, and dry weight). Both tested Cd doses resulted in decrease in root fresh weight by 31.7% and 28.68% and in dry weight by 32.2% and 33.33%, respectively. Increased accumulation of Cd was observed in roots (125- and 173-fold higher than in control) and shoots (125- and 150-fold higher than in control) as a result of applied doses of Cd. Increased accumulation of iron was detected in roots (1.45- and 1.69-fold higher than in control). Decrease in the content of chlorophyll a (by 25.52 and 24.83%, respectively) and chlorophyll b (by 6.90%) after application of Cd 100 as well as decrease in carotenoids (by 40.39 and 38.36%, respectively) was detected. Weak translocation of Cd from roots to shoots pointed to low phytoremediation potential of the tested bean variety in contaminated soil. However, the high tolerance of this cultivar, its relative fast growth, as well as priority of Cd accumulation in roots presume this plant species for phytostabilisation and revegetation of the Cd-contaminated soils.