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Open access

Juan Cortell-Tormo, José Pérez-Turpin, Roberto Cejuela-Anta, Juan Chinchilla-Mira and Michael Marfell-Jones

Anthropometric Profile of Male Amateur vs Professional Formula Windsurfs Competing at the 2007 European Championship

This study aimed to describe the current anthropometric profile of Formula Windsurf competitors during the 2007 European Championships and establish a set of reference values useful for future investigations on player selection, talent identification, and training programme development. Fourty-five male participants (mean age 30±9.77 years; body height 182.04±6.3 cm; body mass 81.67±7.35 kg) were selected for the anthropometric profile, including 15 which the International Windsurf Association had defined as professionals. The anthropometric profiles included measurements of skinfolds, segment lengths, breadths, and girths. Somatotype measurements were also calculated into the equation. The male professional windsurfers had larger length, breadth, and girth measurements than their amateur counterparts. The three somatotype components showed that both groups were predominantly mesomorphic, but the professionals were more ectomorphic than endomorphic, whereas the amateurs were slightly more endomorphic than ectomorphic. The descriptive analysis of the anthropometric data provide relevant information concerning the morphological indicators of competitive success in this sporting discipline.

Open access

Fernando Alacid, Michael Marfell-Jones, Pedro López-Miñarro, Ignacio Martínez and José Muyor

Morphological characteristics of young elite paddlers

The aims of this study were to describe kinanthropometric characteristics of elite male and female young paddlers and to compare their proportionality with Olympic paddlers. One hundred and eighty seven young elite sprint paddlers (124 males and 63 females), aged 13 and 14 years, were assessed using a battery of 31 anthropometric dimensions. Somatotypes, Phantom Z-scores and corrected girths were calculated. Comparison between the 13 and 14 year old paddlers showed that 14 year old males had greater height, body weight, sitting height, arm span and upper body lengths, breadths and girths than their 13 year old counterparts, whereas 14 year old female paddlers only differed significantly from the 13 year olds in biacromial breadth and corrected arm girth. Mean somatotypes of male paddlers were best described as balanced mesomorphs, while female paddlers were centrals. Olympic paddlers had higher proportional dimensions in upper body girths, and biacromial breadth in both genders. The data provided in this study could be used as a guideline for talent identification in sprint canoeing and kayaking.

Open access

Matthew Saunders, Sigrid Dengel, Pasi Kolari, Christine Moureaux, Leonardo Montagnani, Eric Ceschia, Nuria Altimir, Ana López-Ballesteros, Sara Marańon-Jimenez, Manuel Acosta, Katja Klumpp, Bert Gielen, Maarten Op de Beeck, Lukas Hörtnagl, Lutz Merbold, Bruce Osborne, Thomas Grünwald, Dominique Arrouays, Hakima Boukir, Nicolas Saby, Giacomo Nicolini, Dario Papale and Michael Jones


There are many factors that influence ecosystem scale carbon, nitrogen and greenhouse gas dynamics, including the inherent heterogeneity of soils and vegetation, anthropogenic management interventions, and biotic and abiotic disturbance events. It is important therefore, to document the characteristics of the soils and vegetation and to accurately report all management activities, and disturbance events to aid the interpretation of collected data, and to determine whether the ecosystem either amplifies or mitigates climate change. This paper outlines the importance of assessing both the spatial and temporal variability of soils and vegetation and to report all management events, the import or export of C or N from the ecosystem, and the occurrence of biotic/abiotic disturbances at ecosystem stations of the Integrated Carbon Observation System, a pan-European research infrastructure.

Open access

Daniela Franz, Manuel Acosta, Núria Altimir, Nicola Arriga, Dominique Arrouays, Marc Aubinet, Mika Aurela, Edward Ayres, Ana López-Ballesteros, Mireille Barbaste, Daniel Berveiller, Sébastien Biraud, Hakima Boukir, Timothy Brown, Christian Brümmer, Nina Buchmann, George Burba, Arnaud Carrara, Allessandro Cescatti, Eric Ceschia, Robert Clement, Edoardo Cremonese, Patrick Crill, Eva Darenova, Sigrid Dengel, Petra D’Odorico, Gianluca Filippa, Stefan Fleck, Gerardo Fratini, Roland Fuß, Bert Gielen, Sébastien Gogo, John Grace, Alexander Graf, Achim Grelle, Patrick Gross, Thomas Grünwald, Sami Haapanala, Markus Hehn, Bernard Heinesch, Jouni Heiskanen, Mathias Herbst, Christine Herschlein, Lukas Hörtnagl, Koen Hufkens, Andreas Ibrom, Claudy Jolivet, Lilian Joly, Michael Jones, Ralf Kiese, Leif Klemedtsson, Natascha Kljun, Katja Klumpp, Pasi Kolari, Olaf Kolle, Andrew Kowalski, Werner Kutsch, Tuomas Laurila, Anne de Ligne, Sune Linder, Anders Lindroth, Annalea Lohila, Bernhard Longdoz, Ivan Mammarella, Tanguy Manise, Sara Maraňón Jiménez, Giorgio Matteucci, Matthias Mauder, Philip Meier, Lutz Merbold, Simone Mereu, Stefan Metzger, Mirco Migliavacca, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Christine Moureaux, David Nelson, Eiko Nemitz, Giacomo Nicolini, Mats B. Nilsson, Maarten Op de Beeck, Bruce Osborne, Mikaell Ottosson Löfvenius, Marian Pavelka, Matthias Peichl, Olli Peltola, Mari Pihlatie, Andrea Pitacco, Radek Pokorný, Jukka Pumpanen, Céline Ratié, Corinna Rebmann, Marilyn Roland, Simone Sabbatini, Nicolas P.A. Saby, Matthew Saunders, Hans Peter Schmid, Marion Schrumpf, Pavel Sedlák, Penelope Serrano Ortiz, Lukas Siebicke, Ladislav Šigut, Hanna Silvennoinen, Guillaume Simioni, Ute Skiba, Oliver Sonnentag, Kamel Soudani, Patrice Soulé, Rainer Steinbrecher, Tiphaine Tallec, Anne Thimonier, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Patrik Vestin, Gaëlle Vincent, Caroline Vincke, Domenico Vitale, Peter Waldner, Per Weslien, Lisa Wingate, Georg Wohlfahrt, Mark Zahniser and Timo Vesala


Research infrastructures play a key role in launching a new generation of integrated long-term, geographically distributed observation programmes designed to monitor climate change, better understand its impacts on global ecosystems, and evaluate possible mitigation and adaptation strategies. The pan-European Integrated Carbon Observation System combines carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG; CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O) observations within the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems and oceans. High-precision measurements are obtained using standardised methodologies, are centrally processed and openly available in a traceable and verifiable fashion in combination with detailed metadata. The Integrated Carbon Observation System ecosystem station network aims to sample climate and land-cover variability across Europe. In addition to GHG flux measurements, a large set of complementary data (including management practices, vegetation and soil characteristics) is collected to support the interpretation, spatial upscaling and modelling of observed ecosystem carbon and GHG dynamics. The applied sampling design was developed and formulated in protocols by the scientific community, representing a trade-off between an ideal dataset and practical feasibility. The use of open-access, high-quality and multi-level data products by different user communities is crucial for the Integrated Carbon Observation System in order to achieve its scientific potential and societal value.