Motivation and life style of the Czech amenity migrants (case study)
Amenity migration is a specific type of migration which is not motivated by higher wages - it has been brought about by the desire to render more valuable natural or socio-cultural environment of the target territory, and it is often directed from metropolitan to rural areas. The group of amenity migrants from chosen areas of the Czech Republic was described and identified on basis of collected empirical data set. Results are discussed with relevant authors who currently study amenity migration abroad. It follows from the mentioned results that amenity migrants in model areas are rather university educated, economically strong and more creative. They prefer natural amenities to cultural ones, their in-migration is not related to tourism and second homes phenomenon as it was expected earlier. They use current residential potential for permanent living in the amenity-rich places.
Amenity Migration in the Context of Landscape-Ecology Research
Amenity migration is a specific type of migration that is not economically motivated. Rather it is brought about by a desire to render more valuable the natural or socio-cultural environment of the target territory, and it is often directed from metropolitan to rural areas. This phenomenon has been strongly supported by the spread and growing accessibility of mass information technologies. As with any other kind of migration, it can lead to changes in the spatial distribution of human activities in the target territory. Under specific conditions, it can become one of the driving societal forces determining the socio-economic development of a given rural region. In the European context, amenity migration appears to be in its early stages of development. As such, it has been the subject of theoretical debate rather than being documented by empirical evidence. Amenity migration can be seen as an ambiguous phenomenon. Optimistic hypotheses claim that it could support local development of rural space and thus diminish the disproportionate development of particular regions and that it can maintain or even improve these region's environmental and cultural quality. On the other hand, it can also lead to a massive invasion of urban behavioural patterns into rural areas, making them culturally uniform. Tried and tested GIS methods exist for identifying a landscape's potential for amenity migration. The use of qualitative and quantitative techniques is a useful and progressive approach to landscape ecological research. We can expect further progress in the methods used to study amenity migration and for evaluating rural development within a landscape context following further research on amenity migrants, which will take place over the coming years.
Migration trends in the Czech Republic after 1990 are discussed in this paper. To evaluate the migration trends, the databases of immigrants and emigrants from the Czech Statistical Office from 1990 to 2010, are used. While migration from rural areas to urban areas prevailed in the past, after 1990 the direction changed: the population in rural areas with good natural and socio-cultural environments has been increasing due to migration. Small municipalities have a positive migration balance. We can conclude that these trends could be influenced primarily by social and environmental problems in cities, the increase in automobile use and the development of communication technologies, the migration of pensioners who settle in second homes, and the changing residential preferences of people and entrepreneurs.