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Open access

Helena Sęk and Michał Ziarko

Utilization of resources in coping with chronic illness

Research conducted to date has evidenced the importance of single resources for adaptation to illness. The aim of the presented study was to take into account many resources so as to determine their structure and the way of utilization in various patient groups. The Resourcefulness for Recovery Inventory (Celiński, Antoniazzi, 2001) measuring 18 personal and social resources was used for this purpose. Participants in the study were 115 patients (68 men, 47 women) suffering from cardiovascular or rheumatoid diseases, or from cancer. The patients were found to utilize cognitive, emotional and behavioral resources, as well as social support in their adaptation to illness. The highest level of resource utilization was found in the cardiac group, and the lowest - in cancer patients.

Open access

Michał Ziarko, Łukasz Kaczmarek and Ewa Mojs

Mediating role of coping styles in the relationship between anxiety and health behaviors of obese adolescents

Obesity is one of the major health problems in adolescents. Health-detrimental lifestyle (i.e. lack of physical activity, inappropriate nutrition) as well as maladaptive styles of coping with stress are regarded as belonging among determinants of obesity. The aim of the study was to establish factors mediating between anxiety and diet-related health behaviors. Participants in the study were 113 adolescents with obesity whose body weight was over 97th centile. They were examined using a set of self-report questionnaires to measure anxiety, coping styles and health behaviors. Emotion-focused coping and seeking social contacts (social diversion) were found to act as mediators between adolescents' trait anxiety and their health behaviors. The findings suggest that to enhance obese adolescents' health-promoting behaviors appropriate conditions should be ensured that would not only enable them to express their emotions, but also promote their socializing with peers.

Open access

Michał Ziarko, Agnieszka Rosińska and Michał Sieński

Abstract

Background - Early adulthood is the developmental stage during which, for the first time, an individual can independently choose their own lifestyle. For the future health of a young adult, it is important that they incorporate healthy behaviors from different health dimensions (somatic, mental, social) into their lifestyle. Analyzing the foregoing issue gives rise to a fundamental question: did intensive social changes experienced after Poland’s accession to the European Union lead to changes in different aspects of a healthy lifestyle? Method - The presented study involved 504 people. The research data was collected in two separate measurements in 2003 (n = 284) and 2013 (n = 220). Subjects were asked to complete sets of questionnaires which measured: health behaviors, health beliefs, social influence, intention. Results - Statistical comparison of means tests and regression equations were conducted. Results demonstrate that young adults were similarly engaged in pro-health activities in both 2003 and 2013. A detailed analysis of health lifestyle factors shows that young adults from the 2013 group care more about their diet, physical activity, and more frequently undergo preventive medical health examinations. Moreover, significant changes in healthy lifestyle factors were reported. The most important observation concerned the changes in health beliefs. Beliefs derived from a holistic-functional model of health played a major role in the 2003 group, whereas in the 2013 group beliefs close to the biomedical model of health were more important. Conclusions - Analyses demonstrate changes in detailed healthy lifestyle factors. At the same time, no significant differences in global measures of concern for one’s health were observed. Importantly, results show modifications in healthy lifestyle factors. It is suggested that the observed differences stem from the social change of the last decade.

Open access

Harry Schrőder, Konrad Reschke, Angelika Gärtner, Łukasz Kaczmarek, Helena Sęk, Michał Ziarko and Tomasz Pasikowski

Psychosocial coping resources and health among Germans and Poles

Culture has a substantial impact on mechanism of coping with stress and related health outcomes. We proposed a model emphasizing the mediating role of coping resources and competences in the relationship between controllability of demands in professional/educational life and health in the cross-cultural context. The model is based on the transactional model of stress. 595 participants from East Germany, West Germany and Poland completed: Sense of Coherence Scale SOC-9, Self-Esteem Scale, Social Support Scale, Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Proactive Coping Inventory, Scale of Demands in Professional Life, Brief Stress Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Mental Health Questionnaire. The results have shown the general cross-cultural validity of the proposed mediational model but also indicated some cultural differences in the determinants of health. Germans had higher self-esteem and social support. Poles had higher self-efficacy and used proactive coping strategies more often. Self-esteem was the strongest predictor of mental health in both nations. We discussed the results within a broad interpretive framework of social transitions.

Open access

Łukasz D. Kaczmarek, Piotr Haładziński, Lech Kaczmarek, Błażej Bączkowski, Michał Ziarko and Stephan U. Dombrowski

A comprehensive understanding of participants’ motives to complete web-based surveys has the potential to improve data quality. In this study we tested the construct validity of a scale developed to measure motivation to participate in webbased surveys. We expected that 7 different motivations observed in our previous study will form a 3-factor structure, as predicted by Self-Determination Theory. This web-based questionnaire study comprised 257 participants completing the Voluntary Participation in Online Studies Scale. Their responses to 21 items underwent a principal component analysis and confi rmatory factor analysis. As we expected, three factors were identifi ed: intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation. In line with Self-Determination Theory there are three distinct groups of motives among web-surveys participants with amotivation as an understudied motivational state. We discuss the results suggesting which types of motivation might lead to higher quality of data with an emphasis on possible negative effects of amotivation.