Michał B. Pietrzak, Justyna Wilk, Roger S. Bivand and Tomasz Kossowski
The paper makes an attempt to apply local indicators for categorical data (LICD) in the spatial analysis of economic development. The first part discusses the tests which examine spatial autocorrelation for categorical data. The second part presents a two-stage empirical study covering 66 Polish NUTS 3 regions.
Firstly, we identify classes of regions presenting different economic development levels using taxonomic methods of multivariate data analysis. Secondly, we apply a join-count test to examine spatial dependencies between regions. It examines the tendency to form the spatial clusters. The global test indicates general spatial interactions between regions, while local tests give detailed results separately for each region. The global test detects spatial clustering of economically poor regions but is statistically insignificant as regards well-developed regions. Thus, the local tests are also applied. They indicate the occurrence of five spatial clusters and three outliers in Poland. There are three clusters of wealth. Their development is based on a diffusion impact of regional economic centres. The areas of eastern and north western Poland include clusters of poverty. The first one is impeded by the presense of three indiviual growth centres, while the second one is out of range of diffusion influence of bigger agglomerations.
Michal Wilk, Mariola Gepfert, Michal Krzysztofik, Artur Golas, Aleksandra Mostowik, Adam Maszczyk and Adam Zajac
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the wide-grip bench press (WGBP) and the close-grip bench press (CGBP) on the number of performed repetitions (REPs) and time under tension (TUT) using a variable tempo of movement. Twenty (20) women experienced in resistance training were enrolled in the study (1RM-CGBP = 55.2 ± 9.5 kg; 1RM-WGBP = 52.7 ± 8.5 kg). Participants performed 5 sets of the BP with a maximal number of REPs at 70%1RM. Different tempos of movement, i.e., slow (6/0/X/0) and fast (2/0/X/0), and grip widths, i.e., the CGBP and the WGBP, were employed. The following variables were registered: maximal number of repetitions in every set (REPSet1-5), total number of repetitions performed in 5 sets (TREP), maximal time under tension in every set (TUTSet1-5) and total time under tension in 5 sets (TTUT). The two-way ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences between the WGBPFAST and the WGBPSLOW in TUTSet1-5 (p < 0.05) and TTUT (p < 0.01), as well as between the CGBPFAST and the CGBPSLOW in TUTSet1-5 (p < 0.01) and TTUT (p < 0.01). Significant differences between the WGBPFAST and the WGBPSLOW were also observed in REPSet1-5 (p < 0.01) and TREP (p < 0.01) as well as between the CGBPFAST and the CGBPSLOW in REPSet1-5 (p < 0.01) and TREP (p < 0.01). No significant differences between the WGBPSLOW and the CGBPSLOW nor the WGBPFAST and the CGBPFAST were found. The study demonstrates that the tempo of movement, regardless of the width grip, has a significant effect on the volume of effort in resistance training.
Michal Wilk, Michal Krzysztofik, Mariola Gepfert, Stanislaw Poprzecki, Artur Gołaś and Adam Maszczyk
Blood flow restriction (BFR) combined with resistance training (RT-BFR) shows significant benefits in terms of muscle strength and hypertrophy. Such effects have been observed in clinical populations, in groups of physically active people, and among competitive athletes. These effects are comparable or, in some cases, even more efficient compared to conventional resistance training (CRT). RT-BFR stimulates muscle hypertrophy and improves muscle strength even at low external loads. Since no extensive scientific research has been done in relation to groups of athletes, the aim of the present study was to identify technical, physiological and methodological aspects related to the use of RT-BFR in competitive athletes from various sport disciplines. RT-BFR in groups of athletes has an effect not only on the improvement of muscle strength or muscle hypertrophy, but also on specific motor abilities related to a particular sport discipline. The literature review reveals that most experts do not recommend the use RT-BFR as the only training method, but rather as a complementary method to CRT. It is likely that optimal muscle adaptive changes can be induced by a combination of CRT and RT-BFR. Some research has confirmed benefits of using CRT followed by RT-BFR during a training session. The use of BFR in training also requires adequate progression or modifications in the duration of occlusion in a training session, the ratio of exercises performed with BFR to conventional exercises, the value of pressure or the cuff width.
Michal Wilk, Artur Golas, Petr Stastny, Monika Nawrocka, Michal Krzysztofik and Adam Zajac
Volume and intensity of exercise are the basic components of training loads, having a direct impact on adaptive patterns. Exercise volume during resistance training has been conventionally evaluated as a total number of repetitions performed in each set, regardless of the time and speed of performing individual exercises. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of varied tempos i.e. regular (REG) 2/0/2/0, medium (MED) 5/0/3/0 and slow (SLO) 6/0/4/0 during resistance exercise on training volume, based on the total number of performed repetitions (REPsum1-5) and time under tension (TUTsum1-5). Significant differences in TUT (s) were found in particular sets for each tempo of 2/0/2/0, 5/0/3/0 and 6/0/4/0 (p < 0.001). The ANOVA also revealed substantial differences in the REP for individual sets (p < 0.001). Post-hoc analyses showed that TUT for each set and total TUTsum1-5 were significantly higher in the 5/0/3/0 and 6/0/4/0 tempos compared to 2/0/2/0 (p < 0.001). REP was significantly higher for the 2/0/2/0 tempo compared to 5/0/3/0 and 6/0/4/0 tempo in each set. Total REPsum1-5, TUTsum1-5 between 5/0/3/0 and 6/0/4/0 tempos were not significantly different. The main finding of this study is that the movement tempo in strength training impacts training volume, both in terms of repetitions and total time under tension.
Artur Gołaś, Anna Zwierzchowska, Adam Maszczyk, Michał Wilk, Petr Stastny and Adam Zając
The disabled population varies significantly in regard to physical fitness, what is conditioned by the damage to the locomotor system. Recently there has been an increased emphasis on the role of competitive sport in enhancing health and the quality of life of individuals with disability. One of the sport disciplines of Paralympics is the flat bench press. The bench press is one of the most popular resistance exercises used for the upper body in healthy individuals. It is used not only by powerlifters, but also by athletes in most strength-speed oriented sport disciplines. The objective of the study was to compare neuromuscular control for various external loads (from 60 to 100% 1RM) during the flat bench press performed by an elite able-bodied athlete and an athlete with lower limb disability. The research project is a case study of two elite bench press athletes with similar sport results: an able-bodied athlete (M.W., age 34 years, body mass 103 kg, body height 1.72 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 200 kg) and a disabled athlete (M.T., age 31 years, body mass 92 kg, body height 1.70 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 190 kg). The activity was recorded for four muscles: pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD), as well as for the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii (TBlat and TBlong). The T-test revealed statistically significant differences between peak activity of all the considered muscles (AD with p = 0.001; PM with p = 0.001; TBlat with p = 0.0021 and TBlong with p = 0.002) between the 2 athletes. The analysis of peak activity differences of M.W and M.T. in relation to the load revealed statistically significant differences for load changes between: 60 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.007), 70 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.016) and 80 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.032). The flat bench press performed without legs resting firmly on the ground leads to the increased engagement of upper body muscles and to their greater activation. Isolated initial positions can be used to generate greater engagement of muscle groups during the bench press exercise and evoke their higher activation.
Piotr Pabjanek, Małgorzata Krówczyńska, Ewa Wilk and Michał Miecznikowski
The purpose of the undertaken survey is to assess the accuracy of the SSE2009, based on a reference dataset. The dataset contains 3,600 samples with the same spatial resolution as the final Soil Sealing Layer product and covers a rectangle of 36 km2. The basis for assessing the accuracy was the photointerpretation of the orthophotomap. The overall accuracy with data division into 6 classes amounted to 65%; while divided into 2 classes: sealed and non-sealed reached 95%. The evaluation results accuracy may form the basis for future improvements in evaluation methods impervious surface.
Mateusz Wilk, Julia Pawłowska, Marta Wrzosek, Michał Gorczak and Małgorzata Suska-Malawska
During a 35-month study on the decomposition of Sphagnum moss litter in poor fen and pine bog forest, an intensive colonization of litter-bags by mycorrhizal roots was observed during the decomposition process. Content of mycorrhizal roots in litter-bags, expressed as % mass of roots, was generally increasing during the decomposition in pine bog forest, and fluctuating during decomposition on poor fen, although in both cases the results were statistically insignificant. Two morphotypes of ericoid roots and two morphotypes of ectomycorrhizal roots were recorded from litter-bags on poor fen during the decomposition experiment, while in pine bog forest one morphotype of ericoid and nine morphotypes of ectomycorrhizal roots were recorded. Molecular identification of mycorrhizal roots succeeded only in the case of one ericoid and six putatively ectomycorrhizal morphotypes. Most morphotypes were recorded only once during the whole 35-month decomposition period, and only one ericoid and one ectomycorrhizal morphotypes were shared between the poor fen and pine bog forest communities
Daria Domańska-Senderowska, Paulina Szmigielska, Aleksandra Snochowska, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Anna Jegier, Justyna Kiszałkiewicz, Joanna Jastrzębska, Dorota Pastuszak-Lewandoska, Paweł Cięszczyk, Aleksandra Suchanecka, Michał Wilk, Michał Brzeziański and Ewa Brzeziańska-Lasota
Muscle strength and maximal speed are factors determining athlete’s results during competition. Their association with ACTN3 gene activity has been documented. The purpose of this study was the analysis of ACTN3 gene expression during a 2 month training cycle of soccer players and its correlation with the countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ). The study group consisted of 22 soccer players (aged 17‐18). The study material included peripheral blood lymphocytes. The relative expression (RQ) of the ACTN3 gene was analyzed by qPCR and performed before and after the two‐month training cycle. Before the training cycle low expression levels of ACTN3 (median RQ = 0.95) were observed, yet after the training cycle they were elevated (median RQ = 1.98) ( p = 0.003). There was an increase in performance of both jumps: SJ (p = 0.020) and CMJ (p = 0.012) at the end of the training cycle. A simultaneous increase in the ACTN3 gene expression level and height in both jump tests was observed in 73% of athletes (p > 0.05). There were no significant relationships between the ACTN3 gene expression level and the results of the CMJ and SJ. However, explosive strength is a complex feature shaped by many different factors and it could be the reason why we did not observe correlations between these variables.
Urszula Bielczyk, Paweł Czarnota, Martin Kukwa, Lucyna Śliwa, Robert Kościelniak, Laura Betleja, Ryszard Kozik, Beata Krzewicka, Mariusz Hachułka, Edyta Adamska, Michał Węgrzyn, Dominika Bielec, Adam Flakus, Beata Guzow-Krzemińska, Katarzyna Kolanko, Joanna Kozik, Grzegorz Leśniański, Maja Lisowska, Magdalena Oset, Piotr Osyczka, Katarzyna Pietrzykowska-Urban, Anna Sadowska-Deś, Agnieszka Słaby, Elżbieta Studzińska-Sroka, Karina Wilk, Piotr T. Zaniewski and Daria Zarabska-Bożejewicz
The paper lists 337 species from Magurski National Park (MNP): 314 lichens, 18 lichenicolous fungi, four saprotrophic fungi and one lichenicolous myxomycete; 112 of them are new for MNP, 75 are reported for the first time for the Beskid Niski Mts, and two are new for Poland. Selected species are accompanied by taxonomic notes and remarks on their distribution in Poland and other Carpathian ranges. First records of Intralichen lichenicola, Burgoa angulosa and Verrucaria policensis and a second record of Epigloea urosperma are given for the whole Carpathian range, and Fuscidea arboricola was recorded for the first time in the Western Carpathians. Halecania viridescens and Mycomicrothelia confusa are new for the Polish Carpathians. The records of Absconditella pauxilla, Collema crispum, Licea parasitica and Rinodina griseosoralifera in MNP are their second known localities for the range. 93 species, mainly rare or threatened in Poland, were reported from MNP in the 20th century but were not refound.