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Adam Michał Szulc

Abstract

Purpose. The First U21 European Deaf Football Championship Men was played in August 2016 in Wroclaw, Poland. No studies have documented or analysed sporting events for deaf players at the elite level. The aim of the study was to bring deaf football closer to the reader and analyse selected offensive actions recorded during the U21 Championship.

Methods. Analyses were performed on the basis of video recordings from the stadium. Eight national teams participated in the Championship. Sixteen matches were analysed with reference to the number of goals, shots on target, shots missed, crosses, and corners.

Results. The mean number of goals scored per match during the U21 Championship was 1.81 ± 1.53. The number of shots on target was 246, with 194 shots missed and 191 corners. The shooting efficiency of the four best teams was: 14.81% for Poland, 14.29% for Turkey, 13.89% for Sweden, and 13.25% for Russia. The highest efficiency of crosses for the best four equalled: 34.57% for Poland, 28.00% for Sweden, 26.22% for Turkey, and 23% for Russia.

Conclusions. The winner of the tournament was the team with the highest shooting efficiency and highest efficiency of crosses in all matches. Overall, 15.25% of goals were scored after shooting from outside of the penalty area, 55.17% of goals were scored from outside of the goal area but from the penalty area, whereas 29.58% were scored from the goal area. The analyses of the U21 Championship can be useful for the organization of coaching and preparation of teams for championships.

Open access

Agata Jurkowlaniec, Michał Szulc, Tomasz Dybizbański, Sławomir Michalak, Aleksandra Świetlicka, Karol Gugała and Andrzej Rybarczyk

Abstract

The tool was created to support the auxiliary clinical observation of the eyeballs movements in cases of different states of consciousness. It enables performing objective observation of the patient reaction to a given external light stimuli. The tool analyzes the coordination of the eyeballs movement with the position of the light stimuli. Images are obtained by camera equipped with infrared filters blocking all visible light with the cutoff light length 715nm.

Open access

Michał Szulc, Piotr Mularczyk, Patryk Grządzielski, Przemysław Zakowicz, Radosław Kujawski, Agnieszka Gryszczyńska, Waldemar Buchwald, Artur Teżyk, Anna Krajewska-Patan, Ewa Kamińska and Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak

Summary

Introduction: Rhodiola rosea (RR) and Rhodiola kirilowii (RK) are well known for their influence on central nervous system, however their impact on the development of alcohol tolerance has not yet been proven.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the ability of RR and RK roots extracts to inhibit the development of alcohol tolerance in vivo, both, peripheral (metabolic) and central ones.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated with RR and RK extracts (p.o.) and ethanol (i.p.) for ten consecutive days. On the first, third, fifth and eighth days the hypothermic action of ethanol was measured, while on the ninth day the loss of righting reflex was examined. On the tenth day rats were treated with assigned extract and sacrificed 1 h after the ethanol injection.

Results: Both extracts inhibited development of tolerance to the hypothermic action of ethanol. The observed effect seems to be specific since none of the extracts affected body temperature in water-treated animals. RK extract also prolonged the hypnotic action of ethanol. RR-treated rats had higher blood-ethanol concentrations, in contrast to RK ones.

Conclusions: RR and RK extracts inhibited the development of tolerance to the hypothermic action of ethanol. Prolongation of the hypnotic action of ethanol by RK extract may be associated with influence on the central nervous system, while the RR one also inhibited the development of metabolic tolerance.

Open access

Michał Szulc, Piotr Mularczyk, Radosław Kujawski, Agnieszka Gryszczyńska, Ewa Kamińska, Bogna Geppert, Justyna Baraniak, Małgorzata Kania-Dobrowolska, Marcin Ożarowski, Anna Krajewska-Patan and Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak

Summary

Introduction: In recent years, the search for potential neuroprotective properties of salidroside and its ability to influence the activity of nervous system become the subject of intense studies of many research groups. None of these studies, however, include an attempt to determine the effect of salidroside on the course of alcohol tolerance in vivo.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of salidroside to inhibit the development of alcohol tolerance in rats, determining whether the effect of its action may occur in a dose-dependent manner, reducing both metabolic and central tolerance without affecting body temperature in control rats.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were injected daily with ethanol at a dose of 3 g/kg for 9 consecutive days to produce ethanol tolerance. Salidroside in two doses (4.5 mg/kg and 45 mg/kg b.w.) or vehiculum was administered orally. On the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 8th day a hypothermic effect of ethanol was measured, while the loss of righting reflex procedure was performed on the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 7th day. On the 9th day rats were treated with salidroside, sacrificed 1 h after ethanol injections and blood was collected for blood-ethanol concentration measurement.

Results: Salidroside at a dose of 45 mg/kg inhibited the development of tolerance to hypothermic and sedative effects of ethanol, whereas insignificant elevation of blood-ethanol concentration was observed. The dose of 4.5 mg/kg b.w. had minimal effect, only small inhibition of tolerance to hypothermic action was observed. Salidroside affected neither body mass growth nor body temperature in non-alcoholic (control) rats.

Conclusions: Results of the study indicate that salidroside at a dose of 45 mg/kg inhibited the development of tolerance to the hypothermic effect of ethanol. Observed inhibition of tolerance to the sedative effect of ethanol seems to be associated with salidroside influence on the central nervous system. A comprehensive explanation of the abovementioned observations requires further pharmacological and pharmacodynamic studies.