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Michał Stosik, Beata Tokarz-Deptuła and Wiesław Deptuła

Abstract

Thrombocytes in vertebrates other than mammals, inter alia in fish, are analogues of platelets in mammals. In Osteichthyes, these cells take part in haemostatic processes, including aggregation and release reactions in cases of blood vessel damage, and in the immune response development as well. This paper discusses the development of thrombocytes in Osteichthyes, taking into account the need to make changes to the concept of grouping progenitor cells as suggested in the literature. The following pages present the morphological and cytochemical properties of thrombocytes as well as their defence functions, and also point out differences between thrombocytes in fish and platelets in mammals. The paper further highlights the level of thrombocytes’ immune activity observed in fish and based on an increased proportion of these cells in response to antigenic stimulation, on morphological shifts towards forms characteristic of dendritic cells after antigenic stimulation and on the presence of surface structures and cytokines released through, inter alia, gene expression of TLR receptors, MHC class II protein-coding genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The study also points out the need to recognise thrombocytes in Osteichthyes as specialised immune cells conditioning non-specific immune mechanisms and playing an important role in affecting adaptive immune mechanisms.

Open access

Justyna Mazurek, Ewa Bok, Paweł Pusz, Michał Stosik and Katarzyna Baldy-Chudzik

Abstract

The objective of the study was to examine the characteristics of the resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs from three farms in Western Poland. The sensitivity to 13 antimicrobial agents was tested by a disk diffusion method, and the presence of 13 resistance genes was determined by PCR. The majority of the isolates were multi-resistant. The most common multi-resistance patterns were streptomycin, trimethoprim, sulfisoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline. Although some resistance genes, such as strA/strB, blaTEM, sul1, sul2, and tetA, were equally represented in isolates from each farm, differences in the distribution of tetB and tetC, hfrV, dhfrXII, and sul1 resistance genes were observed among the isolates from different farms. Approximately one-third (35.9%) of the isolates possessed a class 1 integron. The four major different variable regions of the class 1 integron contained streptomycin (aadA1, aadA2, and aadA5) and/or trimethoprim (dhfrI, dhfrV and dhfrXVII), and/or sulphonamides (sul1) resistance genes. The results of this study emphasise that uncontrolled use of antibiotics causes the development of resistance and provides the evidence of frequent occurrence of more than one gene encoding the resistance to the same antimicrobial agent in the multi-resistant strains.