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  • Author: Michał Siegmund x
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The method of unconventional solid rock loosening with undercutting anchors and the literature analysis of the problem are presented. The tests and test results of the rocks loosening process with a fixed undercutting anchor are described. The tests were carried out within the RODEST project, OPUS 10 competition No. 2015/19/B/ST10/02817, financed by the National Science Centre. Numerical modeling process as well as a series of laboratory and in situ tests were carried out. The test stand equipment and methodology for the in situ tests are presented. The tests were conducted in four mines, which allowed to obtain and determine the following characteristics:

  1. loosening force as a function of anchoring depth (for a given type of rock),
  2. the range of rock loosening in a function of anchoring depth (for a given type of rock), and
  3. loosened rock volume as a function of anchoring depth (for a given type of rock).

The in situ test results are compared with the concrete capacity design (CCD) model used for the calculation of anchor load capacity in concrete.


Dynamic development of 3D printing technology contributes to its wide applicability. FDM (Fused Deposition Method) is the most known and popular 3D printing method due to its availability and affordability. It is also usable in design of technical objects – to verify design concepts with use of 3D printed prototypes. The prototypes are produced at lower cost and shorter time comparing to other manufacturing methods and might be used for a number of purposes depending on designed object’s features they reflect. In the article, usability of 3D printing method FDM for designing of technical objects is verified based on sample functional prototypes. Methodology applied to develop these prototypes and their stand tests are covered. General conclusion is that 3D printed prototypes manufactured with FDM method proved to be useful for verifying new concepts within design processes carried out in KOMAG.