Tadeusz Majcherczyk, Zbigniew Niedbalski and Michał Kowalski
The paper presents an evaluation of 3D numerical modeling of the first road tunnel built mining method in Poland, on the Polish-Slovakian border. The Laliki tunnel presents a unique case for an assessment of 3D numerical modeling as a tool for tunnel design due to detailed data being available from monitoring during construction. Geotechnical evaluation carried out for the project proved insufficient, which called for an urgent necessity to work out an additional reinforcement of preliminary lining, using forepoling as the arch support. Stability analyses of the tunnel with new lining were carried out on the basis of 3D numerical modeling of displacements and stresses around the tunnel.
Marek Cała, Michał Kowalski and Agnieszka Stopkowicz
The purpose of this paper was to perform the 3D numerical calculations allowing slope stability analysis of Hyttemalmen open pit (location Kirkenes, Finnmark Province, Norway). After a ramp rock slide, which took place in December 2010, as well as some other small-scale rock slope stability problems, it proved necessary to perform a serious stability analyses. The Hyttemalmen open pit was designed with a depth up to 100 m, a bench height of 24 m and a ramp width of 10 m. The rock formation in the iron mining district of Kirkenes is called the Bjornevaten Group. This is the most structurally complicated area connected with tectonic process such as folding, faults and metamorphosis. The Bjornevaten Group is a volcano-sedimentary sequence. Rock slope stability depends on the mechanical properties of the rock, hydro-geological conditions, slope topography, joint set systems and seismic activity. However, rock slope stability is mainly connected with joint sets. Joints, or general discontinuities, are regarded as weak planes within rock which have strength reducing consequences with regard to rock strength. Discontinuities within the rock mass lead to very low tensile strength. Several simulations were performed utilising the RocLab (2007) software to estimate the gneiss cohesion for slopes of different height. The RocLab code is dedicated to estimate rock mass strength using the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Utilising both the GSI index and the Hoek-Brown strength criterion the equivalent Mohr-Coulomb parameters (cohesion and angle of internal friction) can be calculated. The results of 3D numerical calculations (with FLA3D code) show that it is necessary to redesign the slope-bench system in the Hyttemalmen open pit. Changing slope inclination for lower stages is recommended. The minimum factor of safety should be equal 1.3. At the final planned stage of excavation, the factor of safety drops to 1.06 with failure surface ranging through all of the slopes. In the case of a slope angle 70° for lower stages, FS = 1.26, which is not enough to provide slope stability. Another series of calculations were therefore performed taking water table lowering into consideration, which increases the global safety factor. It was finally evaluated, that for a water table level of 72 m the factor of safety equals 1.3, which is enough to assure global open-pit stability.
Jacek Kowalski and Michał Strzelecki
The paper presents test procedures designed for application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) CMOS VLSI chip prototype that implements a synchronized oscillator neural network with a matrix size of 32×32 for object detecting in binary images. Networks of synchronized oscillators are recently developed tool for image segmentation and analysis. This paper briefly introduces synchronized oscillators network. Basic chip analog building blocks with their test procedures and measurements results are presented. In order to do measurements, special basic building blocks test structures have been implemented in the chip. It let compare Spectre simulations results to measurements results. Moreover, basic chip analog building blocks measurements give precious information about their imperfections caused by MOS transistor mismatch. This information is very usable during design and improvement of a special setup for chip functional tests. Improvement of the setup is a digitally assisted analog technique. It is an original idea of oscillators tuning procedure used during chip prototype testing. Such setup, oscillators tuning procedure and segmentation of sample binary images are presented
Justyna Adamczyk, Marek Cała, Jerzy Flisiak, Malwina Kolano and Michał Kowalski
This paper presents the slope stability analysis for the current as well as projected (final) geometry of waste dump Sandstone Open Pit “Osielec”. For the stability analysis six sections were selected. Then, the final geometry of the waste dump was designed and the stability analysis was conducted. On the basis of the analysis results the opportunities to improve the stability of the object were identified. The next issue addressed in the paper was to determine the proportion of the mixture containing mining and processing wastes, for which the waste dump remains stable. Stability calculations were carried out using Janbu method, which belongs to the limit equilibrium methods.
Marek Cała, Antoni Tajduś, Wacław Andrusikiewicz, Michał Kowalski, Malwina Kolano, Agnieszka Stopkowicz, Katarzyna Cyran and Joanna Jakóbczyk
Located in central Poland, the Kłodawa salt dome is 26 km long and about 2 km wide. Exploitation of the dome started in 1956, currently rock salt extraction is carried out in 7 mining fields and the 12 mining levels at the depth from 322 to 625 meters below sea level (m.b.s.l.). It is planned to maintain the mining activity till 2052 and extend rock salt extraction to deeper levels. The dome is characterised by complex geological structure resulted from halokinetic and tectonic processes.
Projection of the 3D numerical analysis took into account the following factors: mine working distribution within the Kłodawa mine (about 1000 rooms, 350 km of galleries), complex geological structure of the salt dome, complicated structure and geometry of mine workings and distinction in rocks mechanical properties e.g. rock salt and anhydrite. Analysis of past mine workings deformation and prediction of future rock mass behaviour was divided into four stages: building of the 3D model (state of mine workings in year 2014), model extension of the future mine workings planned for extraction in years 2015-2052, the 3D model calibration and stability analysis of all mine workings.
The 3D numerical model of Kłodawa salt mine included extracted and planned mine workings in 7 mining fields and 14 mining levels (about 2000 mine workings). The dimensions of the model were 4200 m × 4700 m × 1200 m what was simulated by 33 million elements. The 3D model was calibrated on the grounds of convergence measurements and laboratory tests. Stability assessment of mine workings was based on analysis of the strength/stress ratio and vertical stress. The strength/stress ratio analysis enabled to indicate endangered area in mine workings and can be defined as the factor of safety. Mine workings in state close to collapse are indicated by the strength/stress ratio equals 1. Analysis of the vertical stress in mine workings produced the estimation of current state of stress in comparison to initial (pre-mining) conditions.
The long-term deformation analysis of the Kłodawa salt mine for year 2014 revealed that stability conditions were fulfilled. Local disturbances indicated in the numerical analysis were connected with high chambers included in the mining field no 1 and complex geological structure in the vicinity of mine workings located in the mining fields no 2 and 3. Moreover, numerical simulations that projected the future extraction progress (till year 2052) showed positive performance. Local weakness zones in the mining field no 7 are associated with occurrence of carnallite layers and intensive mining which are planned in the mining field no 6 at the end of rock salt extraction.
Marek Cała, Agnieszka Stopkowicz, Michał Kowalski, Mateusz Blajer, Katarzyna Cyran and Kajetan D’obyrn
Stability of mining openings requires consideration of a number of factors, such as: geological structure, the geometry of the underground mining workings, mechanical properties of the rock mass, changes in stress caused by the influence of neighbouring workings. Long-term prediction and estimation of workings state can be analysed with the use of numerical methods. Application of 3D numerical modelling in stability estimation of workings with complex geometry was described with the example of Crystal Caves in Wieliczka Salt Mine. Preservation of the Crystal Caves reserve is particularly important in view of their unique character and the protection of adjacent galleries which are a part of tourist attraction included in UNESCO list. A detailed 3D model of Crystal Caves and neighbouring workings was built. Application of FLAC3D modelling techniques enabled indication of the areas which are in danger of stability loss. Moreover, the area in which protective actions should be taken as well as recommendations concerning the convergence monitoring were proposed.
Joanna Józefowska, Grzegorz Pawlak, Erwin Pesch, Michał Morze and Dawid Kowalski
We present formulation and heuristic solution of a container packing problem observed in a household equipment factory’s sales and logistics department. The main feature of the presented MIP model is combining several types of constraints following from the considered application field. The developed best-fit heuristic is tested on the basis of a computational experiment. The obtained results show that the heuristic is capable of constructing good solutions in a very short time. Moreover, the approach allows easy adjustment to additional loading constraints.
Daria Kamińska, Aleksander Gajos, Eryk Czerwiński, Tomasz Bednarski, Piotr Białas, Marek Gorgol, Bożena Jasińska, Łukasz Kapłon, Grzegorz Korcyl, Paweł Kowalski, Tomasz Kozik, Wojciech Krzemień, Ewelina Kubicz, Szymon Niedźwiecki, Marek Pałka, Lech Raczyński, Zbigniew Rudy, Oleksandr Rundel, Neha Gupta Sharma, Michał Silarski, Adam Słomski, Adam Strzelecki, Anna Wieczorek, Wojciech Wiślicki, Marcin Zieliński, Bożena Zgardzińska and Paweł Moskal
In this paper, we present prospects for using the Jagiellonian positron emission tomograph (J-PET) detector to search for discrete symmetries violations in a purely leptonic system of the positronium atom. We discuss tests of CP and CPT symmetries by means of ortho-positronium decays into three photons. No zero expectation values for chosen correlations between ortho-positronium spin and momentum vectors of photons would imply the existence of physics phenomena beyond the standard model. Previous measurements resulted in violation amplitude parameters for CP and CPT symmetries consistent with zero, with an uncertainty of about 10−3. The J-PET detector allows to determine those values with better precision, thanks to the unique time and angular resolution combined with a high geometrical acceptance. Achieving the aforementioned is possible because of the application of polymer scintillators instead of crystals as detectors of annihilation quanta.