This paper presents the process of designing Research and Development actions for innovative technology of highly efficient manufacturing of Spunlace non-woven fabric with the use of the designed demonstrative technological line. Both the designing of the technological line and the research are response to the market needs of the personal care products manufacturers in Poland and in the world. Clients’ expectations concerning this matter deal with increasing the production volume as well as providing better quality of the products. Due to limited (and fully exploited) production capacities and already-known technical problems in the enterprise where the research has been carried out, the authors designed a concept of innovative controlling of the technological line gradually increasing its efficiency. In order to do so, the authors proposed research based on designing the technological line mathematical model, creating its prototype and testing its operational capacities, saving the data in the database and then the use of this empirical data to the technological line parametrisation depending on the properties and destination of the manufactured products.
Geo-questionnaires have been used in a variety of domains to collect public preferences, behavioural patterns, and spatially-explicit local knowledge, for academic research and environmental and urban planning. This paper provides an overview of the method focusing on the methodical characteristics of geo-questionnaires including software functions, types of collected data, and techniques of data analysis. The paper also discusses broader methodical issues related to the practice of deploying geo-questionnaires such as respondent selection and recruitment, representativeness, and data quality. The discussion of methodical issues is followed by an overview of the recent examples of geo-questionnaire applications in Poland, and the discussion of socio-technical aspects of geo-questionnaire use in spatial planning.
The known from literature Żabinko site is situated in the Warta Pradolina, within the dune field occurring on the bifurcation terrace. In the site we found fluvial, fluvio-aeolian and aeolian deposits, paleosols, and organic infillings of the inactive river channels. The purpose of the study was to determine stratigraphic position of the deposit units distinguished on the basis of lithofacial analysis, pedological description and thermoluminescence dating. The obtained results well correspond to the previously published ones, and new units were also found.
The paper presents results of pedological studies of Klembivka site 1 and Prydnistryanske site 1 barrow IV and the reference soil profile Prydnistryanske site 1 in the context of pedostratigraphy, basic soil properties, construction material origin and palaeoenvironmental implications.
Presented are the results of research into the fluvio-aeolian sedimentary succession at the site of Postolin in the Żmigród Basin, southwest Poland. Based on lithofacies analysis, textural analysis, Thermoluminescence and Infrared-Optical Stimulated Luminescence dating and GIS analysis, three lithofacies units were recognised and their stratigraphic succession identified: 1) the lower unit was deposited during the Pleni-Weichselian within a sand-bed braided river functioning under permafrost conditions within the central part of the alluvial fan; 2) the middle unit is the result of aeolian deposition and fluvial redeposition on the surface of the fan during long-term permafrost and progressive decrease of humidity of the climate at the turn of the Pleni- to the Late Weichselian; 3) the upper unit accumulated following the development of longitudinal dunes at the turn of the Late Weichselian to the Holocene; the development of dunes was interrupted twice by the form being stabilised by vegetation and soil development.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different dietary levels and sources of methionine (Met) on the growth performance of turkeys, carcass and meat quality. A total of 816 Hybrid Converter turkeys in 6 groups and 8 replications were fed wheat-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with three sources of Met: DL-isomer, L-isomer and DL-hydroxy analog (DLM, LM and MHA, respectively). In four 4-week periods (from 1 to 16 weeks of age), the Met content of turkey diets corresponded to the level recommended by NRC (1994) or was increased by approximately 50% to match the intake recommended by some breeding companies. Increased dietary Met content resulted in a higher final body weight (BW) of turkeys (P=0.002) and a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P=0.049), but had no effect on carcass dressing percentage and most parameters of carcass quality. The higher dietary Met level contributed to a decrease in meat pH, a lower contribution of redness and a smaller muscle fiber diameter (P=0.028, P=0.040 and P=0.004, respectively). The higher dietary Met level had no influence on the redox status of meat, but it reduced the incidence of lymphoid cell infiltration between muscle fibers threefold (P=0.003). Throughout the experiment, no significant differences were noted in the growth performance parameters of turkeys, irrespective of Met source. MHA contributed to higher abdominal fat content, lower dry matter (DM) content and lower catalase (CAT) activity in breast meat, compared with DLM and LM. Increased dietary Met content, approximately 50% higher than that recommended by NRC (1994), regardless of Met source, led to higher final BW of turkeys, but had no effect on carcass dressing percentage and most parameters of carcass quality.
The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of prebiotic and synbiotic preparations injected in ovo on day 12 of embryogenesis on both development of intestinal villi and the number of neutral goblet cells in the small intestine of male broiler chickens on day 35 of rearing. Eggs containing live embryos were randomly separated into five experimental groups (1800 eggs per group), and treated with different bioactive compounds by in ovo injection. The control group (C) was injected with physiological saline. The prebiotic groups (PI and PB) were injected with a solution containing 1.76 mg of inulin or with a solution containing 0.528 mg of Bi2tos. The injection solution for both synbiotic groups (SI and SB) consisted of 1.76 mg Inulin + 1000 CFU of L. lactis spp. lactis 2955 (SL1) or 0.528 mg Bi2tos + 1000 CFU of L. lactis spp. cremoris 477 (SC1). Samples for histological analysis were taken from the three segments of the small intestine: the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Broiler performance increased in the prebiotic group injected with Bi2tos when compared to both the control group and the prebiotic group injected with inulin. In relation to other groups, in the duodenum and ileum the highest intestinal villi were observed in chickens with the lowest body weight, i.e. groups C and PI. The smaller surface area of villi was found in the jejunum and ileum in group SB. As far as the jejunum and ileum are concerned, a significantly higher number of goblet cells was noted in groups PB and SB.
Folliculogenesis is the process of ovarian follicle formation,, taking presence during foetal period. During the follicular development, oogoniums undergo meiosis and oocytes are formed. In the ovaries of new born sows, primary and secondary follicles are present and, 90 days after birth, tertiary follicles appear. During development in the ovarian follicles growth of granulosa cells and differentiation of the thecal cells can be observed. A cavity filled with follicular fluid appears. Granulosa cells are divided into: mural cells and corona radiata, which together with the oocyte form the cumulus oophorus. Corona radiata cells, mural layers and oolemma contact each other by a network of gap junctions. Secreted from the pituitary gland, FSH and LH gonadotropin hormones act on receptors located in granular and follicular cells. In the postnatal life tertiary follicles and Graafian follicles are formed. When the follicle reaches a diameter of 1 mm, further growth depends on the secretion of gonadotropins. Mature ovarian follicles produce: progestins, androgens and oestrogens. The growth, differentiation and steroidogenic activity of ovarian follicles, in addition to FSH and LH, is also affected by prolactin, oxytocin, steroid and protein hormones, numerous proteins from the cytokine and interleukin family, metabolic hormones like insulin, glucocorticoids, leptin, thyroid hormones and growth hormones. Despite numerous studies, many processes related to folliculogenesis have not been discovered Learning the mechanisms regulating reproductive processes would allow to easily distinguish pathological processes and discover more and more genes and mechanisms of their expression in cells that build ovarian follicles.
The pig is a polyestrous animal in which the ovarian cycle lasts about 21 days and results in ovulation of 10-25 oocytes. Ovum reaches 120-150 μm in diameter, with the surrounding corona radiata providing communication with the environment. The zona pellucida is composed of glycoproteins: ZP1, ZP2, ZP3. In the course of oogenesis, RNA and protein accumulation for embryonic development occurs. Maternal mRNA is the template for protein production. Nuclear, cytoplasmic and genomic maturity condition the ability of the ovum to undergo fertilization. There are several differences in protein expression profiles observed between in vitro and in vivo conditions. Oogenesis is the process of differentiating female primary sex cells into gametes. During development gonocytes migrate from the yolk sac into the primary gonads with TGF-1, fibronectin, and laminin regulating this process. Cell cycle is blocked in dictyotene. Primary oocyte maturation is resumed before each ovulation and lasts until the next block in metaphase II. At the moment of penetration of the sperm into the ovum, the metaphase block is broken. The oocytes, surrounded by a single layer of granular cells, form the ovarian follicle. The exchange of signals between the oocyte and the cumulus cells done by gap-junctions, as well as various endo and paracrine signals. The contact between the corona radiata cells provides substances necessary for growth, through the same gap junctions. Studies on follicular cells can be used to amplify the knowledge of gene expression in these cells, in order to open way for potential clinical applications.
Ovarian cysts remain to be one of the most common and serious problems in reproduction of farm animals, as well as humans. Apart from causing the fall in reproductive potential of the ovaries, occupying the place in which folliculogenesis and oogenesis occur, they also cause hormone imbalances, by preventing corpus luteum formation, hence lowering the amount of steroid hormone production. While singular cysts rarely affect fertility, hormone fluctuations that are associated with their presence promotes their multiplication, which usually has more adverse effects. While the cysts are easily detectable in humans, possessing distinct echography while examined by ultrasound, multiple factors prevent widespread use of effective detection methods among large herds of farm animals. Because of lack of noticeable symptoms of early stages of such malignancies, they rarely get detected before the animal stops to exhibit symptoms of heat. That causes scientific research to be focused on not only methods of detection, but also the ways to negate the effects of ovarian cysts and bring the affected specimen back to reproductive potential. Despite that, high costs of diagnosis and treatment, cause them to be uncommon on commercial farms. As lack of fertility eliminates animals from breeding purposed herds, ovarian cysts persist as a cause of large losses of the animal husbandry business. Continuous research, focused on natural examples of ovarian cysts should be conducted, in order to improve methods of detection, prevention, treatment and recovery from the effects of ovarian cysts.