The article discusses the influence of digitalization on the organization of a political party and on its members. It presents an analysis of factors limiting and facilitating the development of a political party connected with the use of digital media. The analyses employ data gathered through quantitative and qualitative research conducted among backbenches, members of parliament and leaders of six Polish political parties. A positive connection has been demonstrated between a party’s age and the mode of using particular media types and communication tools. Also, attention has been paid to the phenomenon of digital divide and the possible means of connectivity to party political activity via new technologies, digital tools and digital media. Party members perceive traditional and direct forms as attractive; however, new parties with younger members clearly expect and practice more online activities.
The aim of this article is finding out, based on the obtained empirical data from an opinion poll carried out among the employees of the University of Wrocław, in what way and in what scope cooperation with entrepreneurs (business) takes place on the individual level and on the level of a university. The obtained responses served the purpose of analysis and diagnosis of the level and potential of cooperation between the scientific-didactic personnel, including doctoral students and the economic environment. Key factors stimulating and hampering cooperation were defined. The intermediate goal was to find out, whether in light of the expressed opinions a university is still perceived as a place for carrying out goals typical of a 2nd generation, Humboldt-type university, or whether the features of a creative 3rd generation1 university can be seen. 3rd generation university is focused more on cooperation with the external environment and an exchange of resources. By means of the theory of rational choice two hypotheses were formulated and confirmed: first of all, university employees cooperate with entrepreneurs bypassing the university and the second thing is that cooperation with business is above all a source of individual benefits and is assessed as good. The survey was carried out among the employees of the University of Wrocław in the first half of 2018.