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Open access

Michal Gondek, J. Bień and Z. Nowakowski

Abstract

The aim of the study carried out on ten young (10-week old) pigs of the native Polish Large White breed experimentally infected with a low dose of 300 invasive muscle larvae (ML) of Trichinella spiralis was intravital detection of trichinellosis using the E-S ELISA test, determination of a variation level of IgG antibodies against excretory-secretory (E-S) antigens of T. spiralis muscle larvae and finally, describing the intensity of T. spiralis larvae infection in selected muscles. The pig sera were collected at 7 and 9 days prior to the experimental infection with T. spiralis and at 9, 14, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33, 37, 41, 46 days post-infection (d.p.i.). The anti-T. spiralis IgG antibodies were detected by a commercial E-S ELISA test (PrioCHECK Trichinella Ab). Average intensity of the T. spiralis infection in the examined muscles of pigs ranged from 1.52 up to 43.09 larvae/g. The studies revealed that the E-S antigen in the ELISA test did not show cross-reaction with the sera of pigs infected with Oesophagostomum spp. The ELISA assay did not recognize trichinellosis in pigs until 27 days after the T. spiralis infection. The anti-T. spiralis IgG antibodies were first detected on day 30 post-infection. A statistically significant increase of IgG antibodies against T. spiralis ML E-S antigens was first observed between days 27-30 (p<0.01) post-infection, and a further significant rise in the antibody level occurred between days 27 and 33 (p<0.01); 30 and 33 (p<0.01); 33 and 37 (p<0.05) following infection.

Open access

Michał Bialik, Ewa Gondek, Artur Wiktor, Piotr Latocha and Dorota Witrowa-Rajchert

Abstract

Consumers and scientists exhibit a growing interest in bioactive ingredients of natural origin with strong pro-health effects. Such properties have been found in fruits of of Actinidia argute, commonly known as kiwiberry (mini kiwi or hardy kiwi). Appropriate methods and parameters of the drying process enable obtaining a product with preserved high pro-health properties. The obejctive of this paper was to study the influence of the selected drying methods on the drying kinetics of actinidia. Commonly known mathematical models were used to describe the process. The kinetics of convective, microwave-convective, infrared and vacuum drying was investigated. The process was performed until samples reached dimensionless moisture ratio (MR) of 0.02. The quickest method was vacuum drying reaching moisture ratio target after 286 min, and the slowest was convective drying characterized by 1352 min of drying. In general, Midilli et al.’s model was evaluated as the most adequate for description of the moisture transfer in the fruit samples.

Open access

Krzysztof Gondek, Agnieszka Baran, Monika Mierzwa-Hersztek and Michał Kopeć

Abstract

The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of temperature during the treatment process as well as the effect of adding plant materials to sewage sludge on selected chemical properties and Vibrio fischeri response. The mixtures were placed in a chamber furnace, under airless conditions. Two temperature procedures were applied: 300 and 600ºC; the exposure time in both cases was 15 minutes. Thermal treatment of sewage sludge without a plant component is not well-founded and may cause an increase in concentration of trace elements. Using the temperature of 300ºC caused significantly lower changes in the contents of total forms of trace elements than using the temperature of 600ºC. The metals extracted from the studied mixtures were not toxic for the Vibrio fischeri. In the case of the fractional composition of humic compounds, thermal treatment of mixtures of sewage sludge and plant materials is not beneficial in terms of labile fractions, but it had a beneficial effect on stabilizing the durable bonds between C compounds in those mixtures.

Open access

Michał Kopeć, Krystyna Twarowska-Schmidt and Krzysztof Gondek

Abstract

The problem of incorporating plastics into the environment will be aggravating, both regarding its scale and kind of these materials. Investigations were carried out using aliphatic-aromatic copolyester poly (succinate-co-glutarate-co-adipate-co-terephthalate 1,4-butylene) with addition of fatty acid dimers. The work aimed to determine the effect of composting the copolyester with plant biomass on changes of fractional composition of humus substances and their stability. Copolyester was supplemented to the biomass in the form of a nonwoven fabric in two doses. It constituted 8 and 16% of the dry mass of the composted substrates. The composting process was run within two ranges of ambient temperature 25-30°C and 40-45°C. After the completion of this process, the degree of material maturing was assessed using manometric methods and the carbon content was analysed in the individual organic matter fractions. On the basis of cumulated respiratory activity AT4 a lack of composted material activity was revealed in the higher temperatures of the process. However, in the objects where copolyester was transformed in the lower temperatures this activity was considerably diversified. Adding copolyester to the composted biomass led to a diversification of the Cha : Cfa ratio. The values of Cha : Cfa ratio most approximating 1.5, ie the value regarded as optimal, were registered in the object, where copolyester supplement constituted 16% and the plant biomass was maintained within the 40-45°C temperature range.

Open access

Krzysztof Szkucik, Renata Pyz-Łukasik, Marta Wójcik and Michał Gondek

Abstract

The research material included 96 slaughter rabbit carcasses. Half of them came from the animals managed in small-scale backyard farming units where animals were fed a natural ingredient diet, while the other half was from rabbits kept under commercial production conditions and fed commercial rabbit pellets. The thigh and saddle muscle samples were collected from each carcass to establish a content of ubiquinone (CoQ10) and crude protein along with its collagen level. Determination of tissue coenzyme Q10 (UQ10) was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography with some modification. Crude protein concentration was estimated using Kjeldahl procedure, while total collagen content by the method of Stegemann modified by Hurych-Chvapil, using hydrolysis according to Möhler and Volley. Ubiquinone level in slaughter rabbit tissue ranged between 76 and 127 μg/g tissue. The studies indicated that rabbit rearing system and muscle type are determinants of CoQ10 content. Meat of rabbits managed under the traditional backyard farming system exhibited higher CoQ10 concentration as compared to that determined in rabbits from the commercial rabbitry. Additionally, the CoQ10 level in the saddle was significantly higher than that in the thigh muscles, and the relationships was noted in both types of rabbit production systems. When the CoQ10 content was expressed per gram of fibrillar protein, there were not significant differences between saddle and thigh muscles. The correlation coefficient between ubiquinone and fibrillar protein averaged to 0.94. The studies also demonstrated a higher protein level in the saddle than in thigh muscles. However, no differences in protein concentration were reported in respect to the rabbit farming system. The protein composition in the saddle muscles, irrespective of a rabbit production system, revealed significantly lower collagen content compared to the proteins in thigh muscles. The obtained results and data from literature provide evidence that rabbit meat, especially from the traditional (organic) management system, is one of the best sources of animal protein and ubiquinone Q10.

Open access

Monika Mierzwa-Hersztek, Krzysztof Gondek, Michał Kopeć and Aleksandra Ukalska-Jaruga

Abstract

Due to the indisputable significance of humus in many biochemical processes as well as its increasing deficit particularly in light soils, alternative sources of substrates for the reproduction of this constituent should be sought. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of wheat straw and wheat straw biochar (in four rates) on quantitative and qualitative humus parameters. The following properties were determined in soil: pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, humic and fulvic acids, carbon in the extract, non-hydrolysing carbon and spectrophotometric indexes for solution of humic acids including A2/6, A2/4, A4/6. After applying 1% and 2% additions of biochar to the soil, the Corg soil content significantly increased compared to the same doses of thermally unconverted straw. After 254 days of incubation, the addition of biochar to soil at higher doses, decreased the share of humic acid carbon (CHA, CFA) in the Corg content compared to treatments without organic additions and WS treatment. The nonhydrolysing carbon soil content was significantly increased by treatments with 1% and 2% additions of WSB, which indicates greater stabilisation of humus compounds and, at the same time, lower CO2 emission. Soil humic acids amended by treatment with biochar, especially at 1% and 2% doses, were characterised by lower A2/6 and A2/4 ratios. Recognition of changes that may occur in the quantitative and qualitative composition of soil humus after the application of biochar may in the future be helpful information for determining appropriate biochar dose.

Open access

Łukasz Drozd, Monika Ziomek, Krzysztof Szkucik, Waldemar Paszkiewicz, Monika Maćkowiak-Dryka, Zbigniew Bełkot and Michał Gondek

Abstract

Introduction: The objective of the present research was to carry out a comparative assessment of copper, zinc, and selenium concentrations in the meat of edible land snails collected in Poland (Helix pomatia, Cornu aspersum maxima, and Cornu aspersum aspersum), as well as to determine the effect of preliminary processing of Roman snails (Helix pomatia) on the content of the aforementioned elements. Material and Methods: In the first stage, determinations were made on unprocessed snail meat. In the second stage, the study focused on Roman snails and consisted in an additional evaluation of frozen meat after full processing. Zinc and copper contents were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and the selenium content was established by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The selenium content differed significantly among all three species. The copper content in Roman snails differed significantly from that in farmed snails. No significant difference in the zinc level was noted among the three snail species. The selenium content in raw and processed meat of Roman snails did not show any significant difference while the copper and zinc level was significantly higher in processed meat samples. Conclusion: The present research on the meat of edible snails showed different levels of selenium, copper, and zinc, depending on the species, collection site, and subjection to processing.

Open access

Krzysztof Szkucik, Monika Ziomek, Waldemar Paszkiewicz, Łukasz Drozd, Michał Gondek and Przemysław Knysz

Abstract

Introduction

The objective was to determine the content of fatty acids in edible snail fat by snail species, collection site, and processing stage.

Material and Methods

The research material comprised 180 edible fat samples from the three genera of edible snails collected in Poland: free-living Helix pomatia (HP) and two cultivated Cornu subspecies: C. aspersa maxima (CAM) and C. aspersum aspersum (CAA). All snails came from the Greater Poland and Lower Silesian Provinces: HP from their natural habitat and CAM and CAA from heliciculture farms. The studies focused on the raw meat, cooked meat, and frozen meat processing stages. Fatty acid (FA) profiles were determined by the gas chromatography method.

Results

Helix pomatia fat showed a higher saturated fatty acid (SFA) content, whereas the fat of Cornu genus snails had a higher unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) component, i.e. monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Thermal processing of snail meat increased all the determined SFA and decreased all the PUFA values, and increased the content of C18:1, C20:1, and C22:1 acids in the MUFA group. The material collection site had limited impact on FA content as differences were noted only in levels of C18:1, C18:2 n6, and C20:5. The differences pertained only to the fat of farmed snails of the Cornu genus.

Conclusion

Due to the high content of UFA and a favourable ratio of n6:n3 acids and PUFA:SFA, snail fat can be regarded as nutritionally valuable.

Open access

Krzysztof Gondek, Monika Mierzwa-Hersztek, Bożena Smreczak, Agnieszka Baran, Michał Kopeć, Tomasz Mróz, Paweł Janowski, Tomasz Bajda and Anna Tomczyk

Abstract

The aim of this research was to determine the effect of thermal conversion temperature and plant material addition to sewage sludge on the PAHs content and the activity of selected γ-radionuclides in biochars, and to conduct an ecotoxicological assessment. The pyrolysis of the mixtures of sewage sludge and plant materials at 300°C and such temperature caused an increase in the contents of 2- and 3-ring hydrocarbons. During the pyrolysis of organic materials at 600°C, the amount of the following compounds was reduced in biochars: benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3c,d]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene. Among γ-radioisotopes of the elements, natural radiogenic isotopes were dominant. 137Cs was the only artificial radioactive isotope. The pyrolysis of the mixtures of municipal sewage sludge and plant materials revealed that isotope 40K had the highest radioactive activity. In the case of other analysed nuclides, activities of 212Pb, 214Pb, 214Bi, and 137Cs were determined after the sample pyrolysis. The extracts from the mixtures of sewage sludge and plant materials were non-toxic to Vibrio fischeri.