Milena Marczak, Michał Ginszt, Piotr Gawda, Marcin Berger and Piotr Majcher
Sport climbing, included in the programme of the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympic Games, is increasingly gaining in popularity as a method of physical and mental health enhancement. Studies show a positive relationship between climbing and improvement of neurocognitive functioning. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in neurocognitive indicators: time of testing, memory, and location between climbers and non-climbers. The sample comprised 30 sport climbers (15 males, 15 females; aged 25 ± 4 years) practicing climbing regularly for five years, and 30 non-climbing age- and sex-matched controls. The Tactual Performance Test (Halstead-Reitan Test Battery) was used to measure neurocognitive functions (tactile-spatial functions, motion coordination, kinesthetic abilities, learning, memory). Significant differences were found between sport climbers and controls in reference to time, memory, and location (p < 0.05). Climbers reached higher memory as well as location ratios and lower time ratios in comparison to controls. Different strategies used to complete the task between the two groups were observed. The neurocognitive functioning of sport climbers manifests itself in faster recognition and differentiation of tactile input and better spatial perception, tactile perception, and movement memory.
Piotr Gawda, Michał Ginszt, Jakub Smołka, Michał Paćko, Maria Skublewska-Paszkowska, Edyta Łukasik and Piotr Majcher
Introduction. Productive sporting performance in various sports disciplines often heavily depends on jumping abilities as well as on lower limb muscles power and endurance of the athletes involved. Both CrossFit, a popular high-intensity training program and sport climbing require lower extremity muscular power and endurance.
Aim. The aim of this study was to compare vertical jumping abilities, endurance and quickness of the regeneration in gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), vastus medialis (VMO) and gluteus maximus (GM) muscles in CrossFit athletes and sport climbers.
Material and methods. The study comprised 20 male athletes aged 24.3±4.7, divided into two equal groups: training CrossFit (CF) and sport climbers (SC). Vertical jump test was recorded by Vicon® motion capture system and AMTI® biomechanics force platforms. The myoelectric activity of the GL, VMO and GM muscles was recorded by myon®.
Results. Significant difference in height of vertical jump in CrossFit athletes and sport climbers was observed (SC: 125.43 cm, 120.92 cm; CF: 110.42 cm, 110.86 cm; p<0.05). The endurance of the GL muscles in athletes using CrossFit training is significantly higher in comparison to sport climbers. Athletes training CrossFit have a better ability to recover GL, GM and VMO muscles than sport climbers.
Conclusions. Sport climbers have better results in vertical jump tests than the athletes doing CrossFit. The endurance of the GL muscles in athletes doing CrossFit is higher in comparison to sport climbers. Athletes doing CrossFit have also better ability to muscles recover than sport climbers.
Piotr Gawda, Michał Ginszt, Magdalena Zawadka, Maria Skublewska-Paszkowska, Jakub Smołka, Edyta Łukasik and Piotr Majcher
Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), the most common source of knee pain among physically active individuals, is defined as anterior knee pain involving the patella and retinaculum that excludes other intraarticular and peri-patellar pathology. Differences in the activation and endurance of the quadriceps components, causing an imbalance in the forces controlling patellar tracking during flexion and extension in the knee joint, appear to be the most commonly reported risk factors for PFPS. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in bioelectric activity of vastus medialis and rectus femoris muscles during half knee bend position in runners with PFPS. The sample comprised 20 recreational runners (15 males, 5 females; aged 27 ± 5 years) reporting knee pain and diagnosed with PFPS. The age- and sex-matched control group consisted of recreational runners who did not report knee pain. The myon electromyographic system was used to determine the changes in the electromyographic median frequency during a half squat position. The decrease in the median frequency of vastus medialis and rectus femoris muscles was significantly greater in runners with PFPS in comparison to the control group (p < 0.01 for right and left vastus medialis and right rectus femoris; p < 0.05 for left rectus femoris). There is a relationship between knee pain related to PFPS and the imbalance of bioelectric activity of vastus medialis and rectus femoris muscles. Achieving the muscular balance within the thigh muscles can be an important factor in the rehabilitation process of PFPS.
Grzegorz Zieliński, Michał Baszczowski, Michał Ginszt, Aleksandra Byś and Piotr Gawda
Introduction. Pathological muscle tone can cause changes in the facial skeleton, including tension headaches, tinnitus, temporomandibular joint dysfunctions. The complexity of pathologies and their spectrum may also indicate changes beyond the facial skeleton. The aim of the study was to determine the possible correlation between the pressure pain threshold of the trapezius muscle and the bioelectrical tension on the masticatory muscles.
Aim. The aim of the study was to determine the possible correlation between the pressure pain threshold of the trapezius muscle and the bioelectric tension on the masticatory muscles.
Material and methods. The number of 36 women applied for the study. They were all examined using an algometer within a trapezius muscle to determine the pressure pain threshold. The electromyographic study was carried out in accordance with the SENIAM guidelines. The resting activity of selected masticatory muscles (temporal and masseter) was recorded for 10 sec. The study involved an 8-channel BioEMG IIITM surface electromyography apparatus with BioPak Measurement System (BioResearch Associates, Inc. Milwaukee, WI, USA). Statistical analysis was carried out using the r-Pearson test. The level of significance was set at 5%.
Results. After comparing the bioelectric tension of the masticatory muscles and the pressure pain threshold, left-sided correlation was observed (p<0.05). Both in the right-hand and general comparison, the results did not reach the required level of statistical significance (p>0.05).
Conclusions. The pressure pain threshold seems to be linked to the bioelectrical muscle tone of the masticatory muscles. To confirm this observation, further research into a larger and more diverse group of participants is recommended.
Marcin Berger, Monika Litko, Michał Ginszt, Hassan Alharby, Jacek Szkutnik, Piotr Majcher and Jolanta Szymańska
Introduction. Bruxism, the most detrimental parafunctional activity of the masticatory system can cause various temporomandibular joint disorders, as well as masticatory muscle disorders. It is important to identify factors aggravating bruxism, which can be easily eliminated and ease control of the disorder.
Aim. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between the use of common stimulants - nicotine, caffeine and selfreports of awake bruxism.
Material and methods. 113 dental students (83 females, 30 males) aged 21-29 were examined. In order to diagnose awake bruxism subjects were asked questions from the Oral Behaviors Checklist. Patients were also asked about daily/weekly frequency of cigarette smoking and coffee as well as caffeine-containing beverages consumption.
Results. Cigarette smoking was positively associated with self-reported awake bruxism. There was no link found between caffeine consumption and parafunctional activities.
Conclusion. Cigarette smoking, but not caffeine consumption, may be a risk factor for awake bruxism. However, this association should be further assessed in the presence of confounding factors, such as psychological distress.