Subject and purpose of work: The paper focuses on identifying and assessing selected conditions and limitations of smart rural development in Poland. The concepts of smart development pointed out in the literature were used to analyse the results of field studies carried out in 2011 and 2016 in ten purposefully selected villages located in various regions of the country.
Materials and methods: The conclusions were drawn on the basis of empirical material which took a form of quantitative data and qualitative information gathered from the interviews with village mayors (sołtys) and observations of the interviewers. For the purpose of the paper the statistical methods were used and the analysis of the content of responses was performed.
Results and conclusions: The results of the surveys indicated a presence of both the potential of smart development in the surveyed villages and the barriers to it. The important determinants to activate local economic progress based on knowledge, education and new technologies were connected mainly with a convenient location and the environmental and cultural resources available. As for an insufficient level of valorisation of the aforementioned elements, it proved to be an obstacle to this process, which was largely due to the limited accumulation of human and social capital.
This article is a continuation of the Authors’ study on the ways to ensure the quality and safety of aeronautical data and information. This time, however, the legal requirements for aeronautical data and information were briefly described and then the concept of purpose and scope of Shewhart control charts’ implementation, presented in , was broadened and it was proposed to refer the calculated upper (GLK) and lower (DLK) control limits to the requirements set out in the legal specification including in particular the accuracy values out of the Harmonised List from the Eurocontrol Specification . In order to illustrate the proposed modification, an example of such a card for the measured aeronautical obstacles was presented, considering two cases: that these obstacles are located in Area 3 and in Area 2. Analysed issues will be the subject of Authors’ further study.
This article is a continuation of the authors’ study on the ways to ensure the quality and safety of aeronautical data and information. In its content the Integrated Aeronautical Information Package was presented and its fundamental part AIP Poland was described. In addition, the docking guidance system A-VDGS, being an example of implementation of telematics system in air transport, was discussed as well as its requirements and schematic representation were attached. In the following part of the publication an analysis of AIP Poland in terms of the mentioned aircrafts’ docking systems was performed and a discrepancy between the requirements published in ICAO Annex 14 and published information for aerodrome EPWA was noticed. The indicated case of published incompatibility confirms the necessity to develop and implement a complex method of aeronautical data and information quality assurance at all stages of aeronautical data and information chain, which will be the subject of authors’ further study.
This article is a continuation of the Authors’ study on the ways to ensure the quality and safety of aeronautical data and information in the entire process (considered as the supply chain) of those data and information creation, collection, processing and publication. In its content attention was paid to air traffic proactive safety management aa well as the need to manage identified incompatibilities. The risk assessment and tolerability matrices arising from ICAO specifications were presented, and then on their bases, the concept of such matrices determination for aeronautical data and information chain was developed. In addition, the criteria for consequences’/effects’ of incompatibilities appearance assessment related strictly to air transport were elaborated. In the summary directions for further analysis were pointed out, leading to carrying out a full risk assessment analysis of the discussed chain with the use of the FMEA method.
This article is a continuation of the Authors’ study on issues concerning safety of aeronautical data and information. This time, however, the main focus was placed on identification and analysis of information surplus in aeronautical systems. After a short introduction the redundant reliability structure was characterised and types of excesses used in aeronautical systems were distinguished. Special attention was paid to the title information surplus. Then, aeronautical data and information were described – the purpose and forms of their publication and the fundamental categories of aeronautical data and information were identified. In the following part of the publication, information surpluses for indicated categories of aeronautical data and information, published in various forms, were identified and the risk profile of information surplus appearance was analysed. The whole article was summed up with conclusions. Analysed issues will be the subject of Authors’ further study.
Michał Dudek, Jarosław Waroszewski, Cezary Kabała and Beata Łabaz
Vertisols are characterized by high content of clay fraction that affects their specific morphological and physical features. The shrink-swell phenomena of clayey materials under specific moisture regime cause formation of cracks, wedge-shaped structural aggregates and slickensides on aggregate surfaces. It was formerly believed that these soils can be found only in tropical/subtropical zones, thus Vertisols have not been expected to form under temperate climate of Central Europe. As a result, Vertisols are insufficiently recognized and documented on soil maps in Poland, including the Lower Silesia region. The aim of this study was to examine soils developed on clayey parent materials near Strzelin, focusing on their morphology, properties and classification issues. There was confirmed that soils developed from Neogene clays have vertic and mollic horizon, accompanied by stagnic or gleyic properties. However, not all soils fulfil the criteria for Vertisols due to the presence of surface or subsurface coarser-textured (sandyor silty-textured) layers. Native differentiation of parent material and geomorphological processes were found the main factors, which control the spatial mosaic of Vertisols and black earths (Chernozems or Phaeozems).
Katarzyna Dudek, Krzysztof Lutnicki, Dariusz Bednarek, Jan Marczuk, Anna Kycko and Michał Reichert
The aim of the study was to assess the changes of blood parameters in 12 three-week-old Polish Merino sheep subjected to experimental jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) infection.
Material and Methods: Haematological (WBC with leukocyte subpopulations: GRA, LYM, MID, and RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HGB, HCT, PLT, and MPV) and biochemical blood parameters (acid/base balance, cation/anion content, and gasometry) were determined in blood samples collected one month after JSRV infection, then at four-week intervals for five consecutive months.
Results: A decrease in RBC, HCT, MCV, PLT, MPV, and LYM values in comparison with controls was found in the last month of observation. On the other hand, at the same time, an increase in HGB, MCH, MCHC, WBC, MID, and GRA indices was observed. Moreover, at the end of experiment blood gasometric indices such as pCO2, HCO3, and tCO2, and Na and K ion concentrations were higher in the affected lambs than in the healthy animals. The pH values of the challenged animals exhibited less alkaline character than in the case of controls, which was associated with a decrease in O2% saturation. However, the majority of differences between JSRV inoculated and control groups was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: The observed changes in the examined blood parameters can be considered as prodromal symptoms in the preclinical phase of adenocarcinoma development associated with JSRV infection.
Stanisław Małek, Katarzyna Krakowian, Michał Jasik, Katarzyna Dudek and Martin Bátor
Dieback of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) which has been observed in the Western Carpathians is of interest to scientists from many disciplines.. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of deforestation on water chemical composition in mountainous streams and springs. The research was carried out in 2004 and 2013 in two catchments of the Skrzyczne massif in the Silesian Beskid Mountains. Field studies included measurements of water pH and conductivity. Under laboratory conditions, there were determined concentrations: Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42 in each water sample. The results of physical and chemical analyses of water collected within the Malinowski catchment (covered mainly with spruce stands) and on northern slopes of the Skrzyczne massif - within the Czyrna catchment (covered mainly with beech stands), showed higher contents of base cations when compared to deforested areas. The highest concentrations of the ions analysed were recorded within the Czyrna catchment. Such phenomena should be taken into consideration during forest reconstruction after spruce dieback.
The paper presents the concept of a method ensuring quality of aeronautical data. European Union (among others UE 73/2010) as well as international (among others ICAO Annex 15) regulations introduce a number of requirements regarding the quality and safety of aeronautical data. Those directives set up a complementary regulations system. However with their objective and scope they determine mainly the specifications and requirements that are to be implemented and compatible. Mentioned regulations also refer to selected international standards (e.g. ISO 19157), focused on quality and safety of geographic data and information. Nevertheless within the scope of considered regulations and norms no algorithms and methods of ensuring required quality in the process of aeronautical data collection and processing were determined. Taking into account the identified needs, authors proposed the application of statistical method for process quality management – six-sigma.