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Open access

Jacek Hermann, Marta Sękowska and Michał Drews

Restorative Proctocolectomy for Emergency Cases of Ulcerative Colitis

Restorative proctocolectomy was performed for urgent indications in three stages and for elective purposes in two stages for ulcerative colitis (UC). Since the three-step procedure makes enormous demands on the patients, there was an attempt to introduce a primary pouch anal anastomosis for urgent indications in selected cases.

The aim of the study was to compare early complications in patients after having undergone Hartmann's procedure with those that had restorative proctocolectomy for urgent indications in UC, based on the authors' experience and the literature.

Material and methods. The medical records of 211 patients who underwent an operation for UC in this clinic from 1996 through 2005 were retrospectively evaluated. There were 107 (51%) males and 104 (49%) females in this study; the mean age was 38 years. The median duration of disease was 3 years.

Results. An operation was performed in 77 (36%) patients for urgent indications. Finally, the study was entered by 60 (28%) patients after exclusion of the high-risk patients. All the patients were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 25 (42%) patients who underwent the Hartmann's procedure, whereas the second group comprised 35 (58%) patients who had the pouch operation. There was no postoperative mortality in the surveyed group. Respiratory failure occurred in 6 (24%) patients after Hartmann's operation and in 5 (14%) patients who underwent the pouch procedure. Intra-abdominal sepsis developed in 3 (12%) patients after colectomy and in 5 (14%) after pouch-anal anastomosis. Wound dehiscence was present in 2 (8%) patients undergoing Hartmann's operation and in 3 (9%) after the pouch procedure. Bowel obstruction occurred in 1 patient after the former operation and in 2 (6%) patients after the latter one. Wound infection was diagnosed in 5 (20%) patients after colectomy and in 7 (20%) after proctocolectomy. Differences between the investigated groups of patients were not statistically significant.

Results. The three-stage procedure with Hartmann's colectomy is the treatment of choice for urgent indications in UC.

Primary restorative proctocolectomy is performed for urgent indications in acute UC in selected group of patients without septic signs due to a similar morbidity as the group of patients who had Hartmann's procedure.

Open access

Agnieszka Wasilewska, Ryszard Marciniak and Michał Drews

Leśniowski-Crohn Disease - Historical Overview

Open access

Łukasz Krokowicz, Mariusz Mielniczuk, Michał Drews and Maria Siemionow

Long-Term Follow up of the Effects of Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy (ESWT) on Microcirculation in a Denervated Muscle Flap

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) is a golden standard for treatment of kidney and urinary calculi. It is also widely used in a number of orthopedic pathologies and other fields of medicine. Although clinical success the exact mechanism of shock wave technology is not well established. Cremaster muscle model used in our experiment is structurally and functionally similar to other skeletal muscles (striated muscle).

The aim of the study was to evaluate influence of ESWT treatment on microcirculation and leukocyte-endothelial interactions after longer time period post ESWT application.

Material and Methods: In experiment we used 34 Lewis rats weighting 125-160 grams. Animals were divided into 4 groups - Group 1 (n=10) control, without ESWT application, group 2 (n=8), in which measurements were performed 3 days after application of 500 impulses of ESWT; group 3 (n=8) in which measurements were performed 7 days after application of 500 impulses of ESWT; group 4 (n=8), in which measurements were performed 21 days after application of 500 impulses of ESWT.

Results. The experiment showed a decrease in functional capillaries activity, we also observed the reduction in leukocyte rolling over the endothelium and an increase in flow velocity in V1 venules.

Conclusions. ESWT therapy after 3, 7 and 21 days decreases inflammatory process in the muscle, the other of its effect is weakened. This confirms that the treatment had a positive effect if ESWT is applied repeatedly, because only in this case a wave maintains its beneficial effects.

Open access

Marta Sękowska, Tomasz Kościński, Tomasz Wierzbicki, Jacek Hermann and Michał Drews

Treatment of the Hemorrhoids and Anal Mucosal Prolapse Using Elastic Band Ligature - Early and Long Term Results

The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of the treatment of internal hemorrhoids and anal mucosal prolapse using elastic band ligation and to compare this method to chosen surgical procedures.

Material and methods. The study included 648 patients (363 males and 285 females). 474 patients were treated using an elastic band ligature and 174 patients underwent surgical hemorrhoidectomy. The average age of the patients in both groups was similar - 49 years.

The treatment tolerance was evaluated in the prospective study group. The intensity and duration of pain was assessed on the first and second postoperative day using a Verbal Rating Scale.

Results. 86.5% of the patients were cured using Barron's procedure, success rate for second-degree hemorrhoids was 89% and for third degree - 85.2%. Surgical hemorrhoidectomy was effective in 92% of patients. Early failure of elastic ligature was noted in 2.5% of patients. The recurrences of hemorrhoidal symptoms were observed in 11% of Barron's group and in 8% after hemorrhoidectomy. The intensity of pain was much higher among patients after surgical hemorrhoidectomy. The average of the pain score in the 4th hour was 0.3 for the elastic band ligation and 1.4 for the surgical treatment. In the 24th hour - 0.2 and 1.7 respectively. Mean postoperative stay was 3.8 days.

Conclusions. Rubber band ligation is highly effective and well tolerated. Relatively minor pain following this procedure is found in only 9.5% of patients. The disadvantages of surgical hemorrhoidectomy are: important postoperative pain and long time of wound healing that impair the recovery to professional activity.

Open access

Tomasz Banasiewicz, Wiktor Meissner, Przemysław Pyda, Tomasz Wierzbicki, Maciej Biczysko, Michał Głyda, Katarzyna Iwanik and Michał Drews

Local Anesthesia in Thyroid Surgery - Own Experience and Literature Review

The local anesthesia in thyroid surgery is rarely used, only in selected patients. Majority of centers performing thyroid surgery with local anesthesia have possibility to convert to the general anesthesia.

The aim of the study was to present our experiences with partial thyroidectomy under local anesthesia performed in 49 consecutive subjects in the Central African Republic (bilateral subtotal strumectomy, total resection of the one lobe, subtotal resection of the one lobe).

Material and methods. All admitted patients with clinically significant goiter were accepted for surgical treatment. For infiltration anesthesia 1% lignocaine was used. Because of the shortage of medical resources, potential conversion to the general anesthesia was impossible. Before the operation patients had received an oral sedation and antibiotic. In 16 patients general anesthesia was used, in other 33 it was impossible.

Results. Subtotal bilateral thyroidectomy was performed in 37 patients, 12 patients underwent lobectomy or partial lobectomy of the affected portion of the gland. There were no intraoperative and postoperative complications noticed in the reported group, including complications related to laryngeal nerve injury. The mean duration of the procedure was 127 minutes and mean medical follow-up was 3 days. General condition of all patients on the day of discharge from hospital was good.

Conclusions. Surgery for goiter under local anesthesia may be a safe alternative where general anesthesia is not available or contraindicated for medical reasons. The infiltration anesthesia is simple to perform and reduces the number of complications potentially occurred at the C2-C4 neck plexus block.

Open access

Andrzej Ratajczak, Adam Bobkiewicz, Kryspin Mitura, Ryszard Marciniak and Michał Drews

Open access

Wiktor Meissner, Waldemar Szabłoński, Piotr Krokowicz, Iwona Ignyś, Jacek Szmeja and Michał Drews

Surgery for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Children and Adolescents

Recent decades have seen a constant rise in the incidence of IBD in both adults and children. Despite considerable progress in the pharmacological treatment of this disease, surgery has become the more frequently used treatment modality in younger patients. In the presence of massive haemorrhage, free perforation, fulminate colitis or acute obstruction, only surgical intervention has a chance of saving the patient's life.

The aim of the study was to present the results of surgical treatment of IBD in children and adolescents who were operated on in a department which copes with "adult surgery" in its everyday practice.

Materials and methods. 235 patients were operated on for IBD in the years 1998-2005. There were 18 (7,66%) children in this group, 10 girls and 8 boys. 12 patients were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (66.7 %) and (6) patients were diagnosed with Crohn's disease (33.3%). The age of the patients ranged from 12 to 17 years (mean 15.6). Among the 18 children, 10 (55.6%) were operated on for elective reasons and 8 (44.4%) of the interventions were emergencies (three perforations, two obstructions, one acute haemorrhage and one fulminate colitis). In all cases of ulcerative colitis, a two-step restorative proctocolectomy with J pouch anal anastomosis was performed. Patients with Crohn's disease were treated by limited (sparing)[it seems that either limited or sparing works here, pick one] bowel resection and/or strictureplasty.

Results. There were no postoperative deaths in the study group. Postoperative complications were observed in 6 (33.3%) patients, the complications were ileus in 3 patients (1 patient demanded relaparotomy), pneumonia in 2 patients and wound suppuration with subsequent dehiscence in 1 patient. In one patient treated preoperatively with large doses of Imuran, the postoperative histology revealed a malignant lymphoma. Hospital stays ranged from 8 to 19 days (mean 12 days).

Conclusions. Surgery for IBD in children and adolescents has become a widely accepted method, and it is often the only treatment modality that offers a chance of a cure. Restorative proctocolectomy should be considered earlier in many cases of younger patients with ulcerative colitis, prior to conservative treatment, as imunosupression and steroid therapy in particular produce undesired side effects. A consulting surgeon should be involved in the treatment of younger patients with IBD at a much earlier stage of therapy than is currently practiced.

Open access

Wiktor Meissner, Łukasz Krokowicz, Adam Bobkiewicz and Michał Drews


Obesity, a major public health issue of the 21st century, is increasingly common in adults and children. No good results of pharmacological treatment of obesity results in rapid development of bariatric surgery, which treats obesity and comorbidities associated. There are many surgical options for treating obesity. Options for surgical management of morbid obesity include restrictive (adjustable gastric banding, vertical band gastroplasty), restrictive/resective (sleeve gastrectomy), restrictive/malabsorptive (Rouxen-Y gastric by-pass, biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch) and purely malabsorptive procedures (duodenal switch). Among them, swedish adjustable gastric banding (SAGB) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) have been more frequently performed. SAGB is considered to be safe and effective method of weight loss and elimination of diseases associated with obesity. Laparoscopic gastric banding offers the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, adjustability, and reversibility. Despite fewer number of complications than other bariatric operations, patients after SAGB may have unique complications that are characteristic of the SAGB and require special management and treatment. This paper presents a rare case of complete migration of the band into the gastric lumen.

Open access

Andrzej Pławski, Marta Podralska, Wojciech Cichy, Michał Drews, Piotr Krokowicz and Ryszard Słomski

DNA Bank for Polish Patients with a Predisposition for Intestinal Polyposis

Intestinal polyposis syndromes include a group of diseases conditioned by the occurrence of hereditary mutations. The current paper presents a collection of DNA samples derived from persons from families with a diagnosed adenomatous polyposes which comprise: familial polyposis coli together with its recessive form, Turcot's syndrome, inherited mixed polyposis as well as persons with recognised hamartomatous polyposes: juvenile polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Cowden syndrome and Proteus syndrome.

The aim of the study was to present current achievements associated with the establishment of the DNA Bank for intestinal polyposis.

Material and methods. Investigations were conducted on DNA isolated from cells of the peripheral blood. The search for mutations in APC, MUTYH, PTEN, BMPR1A, SMAD4 and STK11 genes preconditioning the occurrence of individual diseases was performed employing PCR-SSCP, PCR-HD, DHPLC as well as RFLP techniques and DNA sequencing.

Results. At the present time, the DNA Bank comprises the total of 1097 DNA samples derived from 449 families with intestinal polyposis of which 945 samples come from persons in whose families Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) occurred. In addition, the collected data also contain material for analyses derived from 25 families with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and 20 families with juvenile polyposis as well as single cases with the Cowden syndrome, Proteus syndrome and desmoid tumors. The performed molecular investigations allowed identification of mutations ranging from 44 to 50%.

Conclusions. With regard to the quantity of the material collected for analyses and the efficacy level of the employed molecular methods, the obtained results are in keeping with the results found in the literature from the field of genetics and medicine and do not differ from world standards. The collection of data and materials for investigations in the case of rare diseases allows qualitative, organisational and economic optimisation of the performed investigations.

Open access

Mirosław Łukaszuk, Grzegorz Kwiecień, Maria Madajka, Safak Uygur, Michał Drews and Maria Siemionow

Muscle denervation atrophy is a result of lower motor neuron injury, thus an early restitution of muscle stimulation is essential in prevention of atrophic changes.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the new application of naturally occurring epineural sheath conduit in repair of the peripheral nerve gap to prevent development of muscle denervation atrophy.

Material and methods. We used the model of 20 mm sciatic nerve gap, resulting in denervation atrophy of the gastrocnemius muscle in the diabetic rats (DM type 2, n=42, Zucker Diabetic Fatty strain). We applied the epineural sheath conduit created from the autologous sciatic nerve for gap repair. Muscle atrophy was assessed with the Gastrocnemius Muscle Index (GMI) and microscopic muscle morphometry (mean fiber area) at 6 and 12 postoperative week. Muscle regeneration in the experimental group was compared to the gold-standard technique of autologous nerve grafting for the repair of created nerve gap.

Results. The GMI evaluation revealed comparable muscle mass restoration in groups with nerve repair using both epineural sheath and standard autologous nerve grafting (reaching 28 and 35% of contralateral muscle mass at 12 postoperative week, respectively, p=0.1), and significantly better restoration when compared to the negative control group (no repair, 20%, p<0.01). Micromorphometry confirmed significantly larger area of the regenerated muscle fibers in groups with both nerve grafting and epineural sheath conduit repair (reaching for both ca. 42% of the non-operated side), when compared to severe atrophic outcome when no nerve repair was performed (14% of the control fiber area, p<0.0001). The effectiveness of epineural conduit technique in muscle mass restoration was observed between 6 and 12 weeks after nerve repair - when gastrocnemius muscle mass increased by 12%.

Conclusions. Peripheral nerve gap repair with naturally occurring epineural sheath conduit is effective in prevention of muscle denervation atrophy. This method is applicable in diabetic model conditions, showing results of regeneration which are comparable to the autologous nerve graft repair