The article presents a method of teaching the process of diagnosing the technical and functional condition of the fire alarm system (SSP). The fire alarm system’s laboratory model is a representation of a real fire alarm system. The lecturer has the opportunity to inflict several different independent damage. The aim of the laboratory exercise is to familiarize students with the methodology and structure of the fire alarm system diagnosing process.
The article is devoted to the illustration of the relationship of the operation system state assessment in the reliability and economic aspect on a type of information on the state of the object intended for the implementation of an operational task, on the reliability of this object, on the operational task properties (i.e. on the required effect size and the time for its manufacture), on the nature of relationships between a producer and a recipient of the effect. The proposed model of the operation system, as well as a model of the operation process and models of typical operational situations make it possible to find conclusions on a criterion of reliability and economic usability of the operation system.
Chełmno is a town in the north-western part of the Chełmno Lakeland. It is one of few towns in Poland to have fully preserved its medieval defensive walls. Its touristic and natural environs make it a popular tourist destination. The town’s location near the escarpment of the Vistula valley mean that the preserved historical structures (including the defensive walls) are under threat. A few years ago a buttress became detached and two sections of the defensive walls collapsed. One part was rebuilt (the site where the studies were conducted), while the second part remains unrestored. Bricks are also progressively coming away. This situation may be the result of several factors, although the authors claim that the most important are the geological structure and the wall foundations (which are shallow, at a depth of 1-2 m, with the wall having been built up higher in the 16th century).
There are a limited number of studies on secular changes in the neonatal period, and the majority of them concern research related to childhood and puberty The objective of our study was to carry out a comparative analysis of body weight and length at birth in neonates born in Wrocław in subsequent decades since 1950 to find out if these parameters are subject to secular trend, and what values they attained during the studied period of 50 years. The study was carried out in the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and in 2000 to analyse changes in body length, body weight and Rohrer index over time. The sample studied consisted of 7510 neonates, 3882 males and 3628 females, born in Wroclaw. Secular changes were tested using one-way variance analysis. The values of F statistics were compared to the critical values of the F Snedecor distribution. Changes in the features of neonates in subsequent study years were analysed using the modified z-score. Data were normalised for standard deviation in decade increments. Results demonstrated very slight, though statistically insignificant increase in body weight at birth. Over the 50-year period the mean body weight of neonates was in the range of 3.3-3.4 kg, regardless of sex. Results demonstrated very slight, though statistically insignificant increase in body weight at birth. Over the 50-year period the mean body weight of neonates was in the range of 3.3-3.4 kg, regardless of sex. The acceleration in the body length of neonates caused a gradual decrease in the mean values of the Rohrer index. No secular trend in body weight was found in Wrocław neonates over the 50-year period between 1950 and 2000 With regard to body length at birth, four waves of deceleration and acceleration were found: period 1 (1950s): deceleration in the increase of the analysed body parameters of neonates; period 2 (1960s): acceleration in neonates’ growth; period 3 (1970s and 1980s): economic crisis and political transformations in Poland; this is reflected by the stable mean values of body dimensions in neonates. The secular trend clearly decelerated, and period 4 (1990s and 2000) - very intense acceleration in both body weight and length and the Rohrer index.
The paper presents results of pedological studies of Klembivka site 1 and Prydnistryanske site 1 barrow IV and the reference soil profile Prydnistryanske site 1 in the context of pedostratigraphy, basic soil properties, construction material origin and palaeoenvironmental implications.
Gender identification of fish species is carried out mainly by examining external morphological characteristics, which in general, it is very complex and not always a reliable approach. Electrophoresis of plasma proteins can be used as an alternative and useful molecular tool for a more precise sex determination. The presence of female specific proteins in the plasma is a starting point for the application of this technique. In this study, reducing discontinuous sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was applied to analyze plasma proteins of male and female koi carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus). Image analyses of electrophoregrams with resolved plasma proteins by SDS-PAGE showed that it is an appropriate technique to discriminate male from female samples. It is based on the presence of apolipoprotein B-100 which can be used as a suitable marker. Further amino acid characterization of apolipoprotein B-100 confirmed that it is a specific protein for female individuals.
The study evaluated the proliferative activity of immunocompetent cells in the jejunal and iliac lymph nodes of prepubertal female wild boars exposed to deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in naturally contaminated feed. The evaluation was performed with the use of the MTT assay and 2 mitogens: lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A. Intensified proliferative processes in T and B lymphocytes were revealed. The mitogenic activity of LPS was more expressed in the lymphocytes of both iliac and jejunal lymph nodes in comparison with the control group. Proliferative activity was higher in iliac lymph nodes than in jejunal lymph nodes. A reverse trend was observed in the percentage of live cells, which was higher in jejunal lymph nodes during the evaluation of lymphocyte proliferation.
The aim of this paper is to determine the impact of human activity on the soil formation at the mouth of the Vistula Cross-Cut (northern Poland). The detailed research was conducted in the test area (about 500 ha) for which the soil map was created. The three major soil belts were distinguished, grouping the soils formed on marine, aeolian and technogenic sediments, deposited both naturally and anthropogenically as a result of the hydrotechnical works. Initial soils, arenosols, gleysols, brackish marsh soils and industrial soils predominate across the study area. Most of them were characterized by high spatial diversity and multi-layering. Their properties reflected varied dynamics of the local environment on both sides of the river channel, greatly enhanced by the human activity. Based of the obtained results, some proposals concerning arenosols, marsh soils and industrial soils for the Polish Soil Classification (2011) were presented.
The theme of the publication is to review techniques and measures affecting the reliability of the process of image acquisition face. This issue is closely linked to the biometric identification based on facial image. The focus here in particular on factors external / environmental, not taking into account the quality of this same algorithms. Tests were carried out both on a database built on the model of the face as well as on the basis of the actual images. The object of the research being predestined is not only for stationary applications, but can also be used in mobile objects
The article describes the test results of the uniqueness of the work cycle of two-cylinder internal combustion piston FIAT 0.9 TwinAir engine, while being powered by 95 octane petrol fuel and LPG gas. The engine was working according to load characteristics. The engine mounted on the test bench was equipped with a sequential LPG gas fuel supply system. The gas fuels differ significantly from the petrol fuels in their physiochemical properties. In order to rationally utilize gas fuels to power internal combustion engines, the knowledge about basic fuel burning process of these fuels is required. The article shows the analysis of individual engine work cycles of the technologically advanced engine in order to evaluate the influence of powering by LPG gas fuel on the rate of uniqueness of its work cycles. The measure of uniqueness of the inter-cylinder processes are the work cycle uniqueness indicators, which are as follows: the maximum work cycle pressure uniqueness indicator, the average measured work cycle pressure uniqueness indicator, the measured pressure work cycle graph uniqueness indicator and the measured pressure work cycle partial graph uniqueness. The carried out research and its analysis has shown that powering the engine with LPG gas has an influence on the engine work cycles and its uniqueness. The burning process of the mixture consisting of air and LPG gas is quicker, which has an effect on the higher speed of pressure increase rate in comparison with the engine being powered by petrol fuel. Achieved maximum in-cylinder pressure values while the engine was powered by LPG gas were higher in comparison with it being fuelled with conventional fuel. This causes an increase of the gas lads on crank-piston system, which are influencing directly the piston with higher heat load, and the thermal load of the engine.