The issue of sustainable tourism within valuable natural areas has been extensively discussed ever since the emergence of sustainable development philosophy in the 1990s. In view of growing public interest in nature recreation and tourism development, the importance of addressing this subject matter has hitherto increased significantly. The main objective of the present paper was to offer a tool for supporting development and promotion of sustainable tourism in Poland’s forests managed by the State Forests - National Forest Holding. GIS technology, and specific tools for network analysis were used in the project. During task realization, only free and open software sources were used. The work was performed based on the example of the Forest District Żołędowo (Regional Directorate of State Forests in Toruń, Poland) with the use of District’s spatial data resources. A web application was created to present information about tourist attractions and infrastructure on an interactive map with tools for route planning. As a result, there has been developed the web mapping application which provides general access to tourism related information and enables planning touristic routes by pre-specified criteria. Implemented routing algorithms can help traffic management and further protection of the areas vulnerable to anthropogenic pressures. The system created not only promotes attractive tourist sites but also, supports targeting tourist traffic, and accordingly - adds to the progress of sustainable tourism
The GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receivers are commonly used in forest management in order to determine objects coordinates, area or length assessment and many other tasks which need accurate positioning. Unfortunately, the forest structure strongly limits access to satellite signals, which makes the positioning accuracy much weak comparing to the open areas. The main reason for this issue is the multipath phenomenon of satellite signal. It causes radio waves reflections from surrounding obstacles so the signal do not reach directly to the GNSS receiver’s antenna. Around 50% of error in GNSS positioning in the forest is because of multipath effect. In this research study, an attempt was made to quantify the forest stand features that may influence the multipath variability. The ground truth data was collected in six Forest Districts located in different part of Poland. The total amount of data was processed for over 2,700 study inventory plots with performed GNSS measurements. On every plot over 25 forest metrics were calculated and over 25 minutes of raw GNSS observations (1500 epochs) were captured. The main goal of this study was to find the way of multipath quantification and search the relationship between multipath variability and forest structure. It was reported that forest stand merchantable volume is the most important factor which influence the multipath phenomenon. Even though the similar geodetic class GNSS receivers were used it was observed significant difference of multipath values in similar conditions.
Contemporary models of light conditions on the forest floor can be divided into two categories: undercanopy models that allow the light conditions in a stand under the canopy to be simulated, and models that take into account shielding from the side. Under-canopy models precisely estimate the availability of wavelengths of light spatially distributed under the canopy of stands: however, these models require a large amount of data on the spatial structure of forest stands. The other class of models describe the light conditions on a particular open surface. These incorporate shielding from the side and are easier to use as they require less data than under-canopy models. In practice, in forest conditions, such models require data on the size, shape and geographical location of surveyed surfaces (e.g. gaps and cut areas) and on the height of the surrounding stand. Often, these data are available in databases, such as the State Forest Information System (SKP), orcan otherwise be obtained relatively easily (and inexpensively). Compared to under-canopy models, these models provide a cheap way to obtain useful information on variation in the light environment that affects the microclimate for regenerating plants on clearcuts and canopy gaps.
The aim of the study was to characterize latitudinal changes in the radiative microclimate of small forest openings (artificial gaps) under Polish conditions. The global, direct and diffuse radiation on the forest floor in gaps was modelled using the Solar Radiation tool in ArcGiS 10.2 Esri. The gaps were modelled as holes of elliptical shape (60 m × 40 m diameters) in flat terrain and with a depth of 20 to 30 meters to mimic the height of a surrounding tree stand. The range of global radiation diversity on an open and flat surface predicted by our model was comparable with findings of empirical studies. Theoretically, the investigated gaps in the northern-most part of Poland receive only 82% of global solar radiation, 74% direct and 90% of diffuse radiation compared to gaps in the most southern part of the country. The comparison with empirical data indicates that local values of the transmittance parameter of the atmosphere may have a large influence on the actual values of solar radiation and may partially mask the latitudinal impact. Nevertheless, the model constitutes a valuable tool for characterising solar radiation diversity in a gap and supports silvicultural decision-making.