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Open access

Bartosz Piechowicz, Kinga Stawarczyk and Michał Stawarczyk

Circadian Changes in Susceptibility of Young Honeybee Workers to Intoxication by Pyrethroid, Carbamate, Organophosphorus, Benzoyl Urea and Pyridine Derivative Insecticides

In the years 2009 and 2010, in the apiaries surrounding Tarnobrzeg and Leżajsk, Poland (close to the Carpathian Mountains) research was carried out on diurnal changes in the sensitivity of young honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers to insecticides from various chemical groups: pyrethroids (esfenvalerate, cyhalothrin, alpha-cypermethrin, beta-cyfluthrin, deltamethrin), derivatives of pyridine (pyriproxyfen), carbamate (pirimicarb), organophosphate (diazinon), and benzoyl urea derivative (teflubenzuron). The analyses consisted of intoxicating subsequent groups of honey bees in 2-hour intervals, for a period of 24 hours with selected xenobiotics. The results received indicate that the honey bee shows a statistically significant susceptibility to insecticides, changing in the diurnal rhythm.

Open access

Michał Woźniak and Bartosz Krawczyk

This paper presents a significant modification to the AdaSS (Adaptive Splitting and Selection) algorithm, which was developed several years ago. The method is based on the simultaneous partitioning of the feature space and an assignment of a compound classifier to each of the subsets. The original version of the algorithm uses a classifier committee and a majority voting rule to arrive at a decision. The proposed modification replaces the fairly simple fusion method with a combined classifier, which makes a decision based on a weighted combination of the discriminant functions of the individual classifiers selected for the committee. The weights mentioned above are dependent not only on the classifier identifier, but also on the class number. The proposed approach is based on the results of previous works, where it was proven that such a combined classifier method could achieve significantly better results than simple voting systems. The proposed modification was evaluated through computer experiments, carried out on diverse benchmark datasets. The results are very promising in that they show that, for most of the datasets, the proposed method outperforms similar techniques based on the clustering and selection approach.

Open access

Bartosz Bolach, Michał Stańdo and Eugeniusz Bolach

Abstract

Objective: The objective of the elaboration was to assess the degree of physical load in direct start preparation (DSP) during preparations of disabled sitting volleyball players for the Polish championships.

Material: Players of the “Start” Sports Club of the Disabled in Wroclaw who play sitting volleyball professionally participated in the study. The subjects of the study were men aged 17 to 53 (average age: 31.9); they have been playing sitting volleyball for 2.5 to 33 years. Twelve sitting volleyball players with various disabilities concerning uni- and bilateral amputation within the lower leg and thigh, with malformation and short lower limbs participated in the study.

Methods: The study involved assessment of the exercise capacity of sitting volleyball players during 7 training units in introductory and intensifying micro-cycles within DSP. Heart rate results at six moments (at the beginning, in the 10th minute, at the peak, in the 80th minute, in the 90th minute and in the 15th minute after the training) during each training unit in both micro-cycles were used. To register heart rate Polar S810i sport testers were used.

Results: Years of training significantly correlated with age of the participants. The participants were characterized by significantly lower resting heart rate in the intensifying micro-cycle than in the introductory microcycle which may result from adaptation of the body to physical effort. The largest differences in average heart rate values at the considered moments of training units in training micro-cycles within DSP were observed in the measurement of resting heat rate and final heart rate. Standard deviation in the introductory micro-cycle and the intensifying micro-cycle within DSP was growing in a linear manner, except for the peak heart rate index. Resting heart rate significantly impacted the value of heart rate during training units within DSP.

Conclusions: Volleyball players participating in the study were characterized by significantly lower resting hear rate in the intensifying micro-cycle than in the introductory micro-cycle within DSP which may result from adaptation of the body to physical effort. The lowest percentage difference of the average heart rate value occurred in the assessment of final heart rate, while at the remaining moments of training units heart rate values reached the same percentage value. The course of regeneration in both compared micro-cycles (DSP) was similar and it did not vary significantly. Restoring the value of resting heart rate occurred after more than 15 minutes after training.

Open access

Małgorzata Bronikowska, Michał Bronikowski, Agata Glapa and Bartosz Prabucki

Summary

Study aim: the purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential of traditional games as a method of increasing the physical activity (PA) of women following mastectomy. A cross-sectional survey during the 20th ONCO Games was conducted and the sample included data from women divided into two groups: up to 50 years old (n = 26) and over 50 years old (n = 86).

Material and methods: PA was assessed using a questionnaire, and the number of steps taking during 30-minute periods was measured using pedometers during each of the games. Exertion was evaluated using Borg’s Scale.

Results: there was no difference in levels of coherence between the age groups. The group of younger women were statistically more active (M = 3.34 days/week) than the older group (M = 2.77 days/week). All the games were evaluated to be of light intensity, with ringo perceived as being statistically more fatiguing in the over 50 age group. The highest number of steps was performed during the game of ring-net-ball (M = 1903 steps/30 min) in both age groups, with older women performing statistically more steps. Similar situations were observed in the cases of pétanque and speedminton. In ringo, the situation was reversed. The lowest number of steps was recorded in pétanque in the younger age group (M = 296 steps/30 min).

Conclusion: this study indicates that in the rehabilitation and recovery process after mastectomy, traditional games could be a bridging link between exercising and sports as they provide not just activity but also a unique and valuable social context.

Open access

Bartosz Piechowicz, Kinga Stawarczyk and Michał Stawarczyk

Abstract

In the years 2007 and 2011, research was carried out on the impact of: pyrethroid group agents (beta-cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, alpha-cypermethrin, bifenthrin) benzoylphenyl ureas (teflubenzuron), derivatives of pyridine (pyriproxyfen), organophosphorus (diazinon) and neonicotinoid insecticides (acetamiprid) on the food consumption by Spanish slug (Arion lusitanicus Mab). The quantity of food consumed by animals treated by plant protection agents, the quantity of food treated by insecticides consumed and food preferences of A. lusitanicus individuals were analysed. The slugs were made available a selection between food with an addition of insecticide and without it. The results obtained indicate that the preparations which contained lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin with which the animals were treated increase the quantity of food consumed by the Spanish slug. It was also shown that the food treated with lambdacyhalothrin and alpha cypermethrin is consumed in a larger amount than the food not treated by this preparation. Deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin and pyriproxyfen probably constitute food attractants for A. lusitanicus individuals and also alpha-cypermethrin, bifenthrin, beta-cyfluthrin and esfenvalerate are additive, which reduces the attractiveness of food for slug.

Open access

Michał Starczewski and Bartosz Molik

Abstract

Introduction: Paracanoeing is Paralympic discipline in which athletes compete 200m races in three functional classes. The aim of the study was to compare whether anaerobic capacity parameters differ between classes.

Material and methods: A group of 14 athletes from A and LTA classes took part in this study. During the 30s Wingate test the selected anaerobic capacity parameters (peak power, relative peak power, fatigue index, time to reach peak power) were registered.

Results: Results of the present study lead to conclusion that the anaerobic capacity differ between paracanoe functional classes.

Conclusions: There are significant correlation between selected anaerobic capacity parameters and functional classification

Open access

Bartosz Wnęk, Krystian Waraczewski, Michał Chalcarz, Agnieszka Kędzia, Aleksandra Łożyńska-Nelke and Paulina Hołodyńska

Abstract

Rectal prolapse belongs to the group of rare diseases of the rectum and anus. It is mostly observed in elderly multiparous women in the seventh and eighth decade. The precise cause of this pathology is not thoroughly understood that is why there are no optimal standards of treatment.

The aim of the study was to present pathophysiology, diagnostics and optimal surgical procedures employed in young patients with rectal prolapse.

Material and methods. Out of a 56-patient group treated in Department of General and Colorectal Surgery in the years 2006-2011 a smaller one consisting of 11 young women between the ages 20-40 was selected. According to the literature this is a very rare time of the mentioned pathology occurrence. In the studied females grade of rectal prolapse as well as faecal incontinence based on Jorge-Wexner’s (Cleveland) scale were assessed before and after the operative treatment. All of them underwent transabdominal Wells and Frikman-Goldberg prolapse procedures.

Results. Transabdominal approaches repair pathologies of the pelvic floor and have promising longstanding results improving quality of life. No rectal prolapse recurrences were observed. The mean score of the Wexner’s grading system was 7.81 diminishing to 1.9 points postoperatively.

Conclusions. Rectal prolapse if untreated, is a pathology that substantially changes patients’ quality of life for the worse. Individual, standardized surgical approach to each patient is necessary. Transabdominal methods carry a low risk of complications and improve quality of life of young patients enabling a relatively quick return to normal life

Open access

Agnieszka Maryniak, Andrzej Hasiec, Bartosz Duda, Michał Orczykowski and Łukasz Szumowski

Abstract

In some patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), the causative agent of attack is stress (AF associated with adrenergic activity). In others, AF usually begins during relax or sleep (AF associated with vagal nerve dominance). This study aimed to investigate the individual factors associated with the adrenergic or vagal type of AF. This study included 138 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). Sixty-eight patients reported that AF was frequently triggered by stress (sympathetic-type AF) and 70 patients reported that AF usually began during relaxation or sleep (vagal-type AF). Gender, age, ejection fraction, and temperament were compared across the two groups. Temperament was evaluated using the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour-Temperament Inventory. The groups differed only in temperament. Patients with sympathetic-type AF had a higher score for emotional reactivity (p = 0.002) and perseverance (p = 0.002) temperament traits and a lower score for endurance (p = 0.003) than patients with vagal-type AF and than the average in population.

Open access

Bartosz Fotschki, Adam Jurgoński, Jerzy Juśkiewicz, Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk and Michał Sójka

Abstract

The aim of this study was to scrutinise if the dietary addition of a low-pectin fibre preparation obtained from apple pomace, the by-product of apple concentrate processing, is able to favourably affect the gut metabolism, antioxidant status and blood bio-markers of the organism, as it takes place when apple fibre is present in the diet as an unprocessed ingredient. The nutritional experiment was performed on rats allocated to 2 groups of 10 animals each and fed for 2 weeks with either a control cellulose-containing diet or an experimental low-pectin apple fibre-containing diet. To induce metabolic disorders a diet rich in saturated fat and fructose was used in both diet-specific groups. The dietary apple fibre preparation (AFP) significantly reduced the activity of sucrase and maltase in the mucosa of the small intestine. In the caecal digesta, the dietary AFP significantly increased bacterial α-glucosidase and α-galactosidase activity, whereas bacterial β-glucuronidase activity was significantly reduced. Also, the content of short chain fatty acids in the caecal digesta was significantly increased after the AFP supplementation. In the blood serum, the dietary AFP significantly reduced the glucose concentration, and decreased the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. In conclusion, the tested dietary AFP is still able to favourably affect the gut metabolism and can also ameliorate blood glucose concentration, which seems to be related to the inhibition of mucosal disaccharidase activities. However, the analysed preparation has no influence on the antioxidant status of the organism and may trigger adverse effects on cholesterol metabolism.

Open access

Sylwia Borys, Ronza Khozmi, Wiesława Kranc, Artur Bryja, Michal Jeseta and Bartosz Kempisty

Summary

Resveratrol (RSV) is one of the polyphenols - metabolites common in plants,however it does not occur in animals. It occurs mainly in grape skin (Vitisvinifera), peanuts (Arachis hypogeal) and in the roots of (Polygonumcupidatum) a traditional Chinese curative plant.

RSV has a preventive property against the most serious diseases of modern world such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Due to pleiotropy, RSV is currently the main object of many research teams′ interest, which is shown by the significant number of publications devoted to this subject.

Animal and human conducted studies have shown very low bioavailability of RSV (approx. 2%), which is the result of rapid biotransformation to sulphate and to a lesser extent, to the glucuronide conjugates as well. The studies on the improvement of RSV bioavailability, which have beencarried out for many years, have contributed to the synthesis of the analogues of more chemopreventive and more desirable pharmacokinetic properties. In order to enhance antiproliferative activity and RSV bioavailability, series of methyl analogues were synthesized and this will be described later in more detail. An example of such a derivative is DMU-212 (3,4,4’5-tetramethoxystilbene).