In Poland, according to the law (amendment of the act of 21st May 2010) – on the provision of information
on the environment and its protection, public participation in environmental protection and environmental impact
assessments etc. (Official Law Journal article 08.199.1227, as amended) – the owner can cut down trees without
permission, if they do not exceed the age of 10 years old. However, if an owner happens to cuts down a tree on his
property without knowing the age of the tree, he is liable to prosecution under this act.
The aim of this study is to verify whether there is a possibility to calculate the actual age of silver birch trees growing
on farmer agricultural lands using features that enable age of standing trees to be identified. Using these criteria,
owners would be able to calculate the age of trees on their own.
The research used 183 sample trees located on three research plots. For each tree, the dbh, height and prepared samples
of wood from the trees base were used to give the age of the tree. The relationship between age and dbh, as well as
between the age and the height was examined. The strength of correlation was compared and the strongest was used
in the proposed model. Using these correlations two types of charts were constructed to estimate the age of young
birches on the basis of dbh and height.
Miłosz Tkaczyk, Paweł Gul, Ireneusz Olejarski and Tomasz Oszako
In accordance with the National Program for Increasing Forest Cover it is planned to augment Poland’s forest cover to 30% by 2020. This task involves afforestation of agricultural lands by pioneer species that have low habitat requirements, such as the silver birch or the Scots pine. Application of sawdust, clear cutting residues, compost bark and compost beneath tree roots contributed to better development of the assimilation apparatus. The use of mineral fertilizer stimulated tree growth as well as improved physical and chemical properties of soil.
Tomasz Oszako, Katarzyna Sikora, Małgorzata Borys, Katarzyna A. Kubiak and Miłosz Tkaczyk
In the last decades, a new wave of oak decline has been observed in Poland. The most important pathogenic organisms involved in this phenomenon are probably soil-borne pathogens Phytophthoragenus, especially P. quercina. In this work, we sought to test the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on the susceptibility of oaks (Quercus robur L.) to infection by P. quercina. In order to test the susceptibility of oak fine roots to infection, we applied phosphite-based fertiliser Actifos in 0.6% concentration. One-year-old oak seedlings were grown for one year in greenhouse with either an ambient atmosphere (400 ppm CO2) or an elevated (800 ppm) concentration of CO2. Oaks grown at the elevated CO2 concentration developed longer shoots as proved by statistically significant differences. However, there was no difference in the development of root systems. The application of Actifos had a positive significant effect on the development of shoots and the surface area of fine roots under the elevated CO2 concentration.
Miłosz Tkaczyk, Katarzyna Sikora, Justyna A. Nowakowska, Katarzyna Kubiak and Tomasz Oszako
Global climate change is associated with higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The ongoing changes are likely to have significant, direct or indirect effects on plant diseases caused by many biotic agents such as phytopathogenic fungi. This study results showed that increased CO2 concentration did not stimulate the growth of 1-year-old beech Fagus sylvatica L seedlings but it activated pathogenic Phytophthora species (P. plurivora and P. cactorum) which caused significant reduction in the total number of fine roots as well as their length and area. The results of the greenhouse experiment indicated that pathogens once introduced into soil survived in pot soil, became periodically active (in sufficient water conditions) and were able to damage beech fine roots. However, the trees mortality was not observed during the first year of experiment. DNA analyses performed on soil and beech tissue proved persistence of introduced Phytophthora isolates.
Miłosz Tkaczyk, Artur Pacia, Marta Siebyła and Tomasz Oszako
This study is designed to test the potential for reducing the growth of the mycelium of the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea) by using phosphite preparations at various concentrations in vitro. The study shows that adding pure phosphite to potato dextrose agar media inhibits the development of the fungus, but if the preparation is applied in the form of ammonium phosphite (Actifos), the growth of fungus will be accelerated. Probably the addition of nitrogen contained in the product Actifos has positive effect on the mycelial growth, but pure phosphite restricts its development. These studies are preliminary and only show the potential use of phosphite to reduce the development of H. fraxineus; however, to completely confirm its operation, further research is needed in this area.
Miłosz Tkaczyk, Justyna A. Nowakowska and Tomasz Oszako
In the circumstances of only a limited number of pesticides being approved for use in forest nurseries, it is necessary to also examine the efficacy of new products available on the European market that stimulate growth and improve resilience and vitality among seedlings and saplings, with a view to the application of these products forming part of an integrated programme of plant protection. This paper describes trials of the three commercially available fertilizer products Actifos, Zielony Busz and Effective Microorganisms (EM), as carried out in seven Polish nurseries in an attempt to promote the growth of shoots and root systems of seedlings and saplings. In 64% of cases of it being used, Actifos was shown to stimulate growth significantly beyond control levels in the shoots of oak, beech, pine, spruce and alder saplings as well as the roots of young alders and oaks.
Miłosz Tkaczyk, Katarzyna A. Kubiak, Jacek Sawicki, Justyna A. Nowakowska and Tomasz Oszako
Phosphite preparations are now an important alternative in plant protection against new, invasive pathogens of the genus Phytophthora and/or Pythium. It is crucial to intervene when alien, invasive oomycetes are carried to plantations or forest stands and attack fine roots via zoospores. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the possibility of phosphite application to induce resistance to tree pathogens. Phosphate-based fertilizers have been used successfully in nurseries, where application is relatively easy by means of foliar sprays. the traditional fungicides, which are effective in combating fungi, however, fail to control oomycetes. Instead, they mask the disease, which, in turn, causes serious damage to seedlings after they have been planted in a suitable environment. Moreover, the number of effective fungicides available for forest plant protection has continued to decrease in the last decade. The effectiveness of the chemicals is reduced due to their frequent use and their similarity in terms of the active compound or the mechanism of action. Given the low diversity of active compounds, it is necessary to monitor the development of resistance of pathogens to fungicides by means of molecular biology (sequencing and quantitative PCR). Minimising the undesired side effects of chemicals on both, mycorrhizal fungi and pathogens can be achieved by strict adherence to rigorous security measures and, where possible, frequently changing the active compounds to alternatives such as phosphites. The significance of phosphate and phosphite uptake by trees is still a matter of debate, especially under field conditions. Nevertheless, phosphites are environmentally friendly compounds, which constitute an alternative or complement to the traditional chemicals (in accordance with the Directive on Integrated Plant management).
Miłosz Tkaczyk, Katarzyna Sikora, Justyna A. Nowakowska, Ewa Aniśko, Tomasz Oszako, Lassaâd Belbahri and Ivan Milenković
To investigate susceptibility of young Scots pine seedlings to four Phytophthora species: Phytophthora cactorum, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora plurivora and Phytophthora pini; seven-day-old seedlings of Scots pine (15 seedlings per experiment) were infected using agar plugs of the respective species. Control group also consisted of 15 seedlings and was inoculated with sterile agar plugs. Results unambiguously show that after 4.5 days, all seedlings show clear signs of infection and display severe symptoms of tissue damage and necrosis. Moreover, three and two seedlings in the P. cactorum and P. cambivora infected seedlings groups, respectively, collapsed. The length of largest necrosis measured 13.4±3.90 mm and was caused by P. cactorum. To rule out any putative contamination or infection by secondary pathogens, re-isolations of pathogens from infection sites were performed and were positive in 100% of plated pieces of infected seedlings. All re-isolations were, however, negative in the case of the control group. Detailed microscopic analyses of infected tissues of young seedlings confirmed the presence of numerous Phytophthora species inside and on the surface of infected seedlings. Therefore, our results suggest Phytophthora spp. and mainly P. cactorum and P. cambivora as aggressive pathogens of Scots pine seedlings and highlight a putative involvement of these species in the damping off of young Scots pine seedlings frequently observed in forest nurseries.
Paweł Czapski, Mariusz Kacprzak, Jan Kotlarz, Karol Mrowiec, Katarzyna Kubiak and Miłosz Tkaczyk
The main purpose of this publication is to present the current progress of the work associated with the use of a lightweight unmanned platforms for various environmental studies. Current development in information technology, electronics and sensors miniaturisation allows mounting multispectral cameras and scanners on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that could only be used on board aircraft and satellites. Remote Sensing Division in the Institute of Aviation carries out innovative researches using multisensory platform and lightweight unmanned vehicle to evaluate the health state of forests in Wielkopolska province. In this paper, applicability of multispectral images analysis acquired several times during the growing season from low altitude (up to 800m) is presented. We present remote sensing indicators computed by our software and common methods for assessing state of trees health. The correctness of applied methods is verified using analysis of satellite scenes acquired by Landsat 8 OLI instrument (Operational Land Imager).
Danuta Woreta, Robert Wolski, Sławomir Lipiński and Miłosz Tkaczyk
The paper presets the results of the study on the life span, survival, body weight and fecundity of cockchafer (Melolontha spp.) adults feeding on the leaves of Betula pendula Roth., Quercus robur L., Q. rubra L., Acer platanoides L., Tilia cordata Mill. and Pinus silvestris L. inflorescences. The life span and body weight of adults, as well as female fertility were examined in the years 2015, 2016 and 2017. In 2015, the tested common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha L.) adults and forest cockchafer (Melololntha hippocastani F.) adults were fed on B. pendula., Q. robur and P. silvestris. In 2016, forest cockchafer adults were fed on B. pendula, Q. robur, Q. rubra, T. cordata, and in 2017 – on B. pendula., Q. robur T. cordata and A. platanoides. Adults of both species feeding on Q. robur were treated as the control. Adult specimens observed under laboratory conditions were collected in the field, shortly after leaving their overwintering sites in the soil. Our results showed that feeding on the leaves of Q. robur and Q. rubra had the greatest positive effects on the life span, body weight and fecundity of the studied cockchafer adults. M. melolontha females reared on the leaves of B. pendula laid no eggs. The leaves of A. platanoides constituted an adequate food source for the development of M. hippocastani. P. silvestris inflorescences proved to be the right food only for M. melolontha females. M. hippocastani adults feeding on T. cordata and B. pendula were characterized by a short life, decreasing body weight in the first days of observation and low fertility.