This paper presents results from investigations on the long-term influence of concrete surface and crack orientation on ingress in cracks. Five reinforced concrete structures from Norway exposed to either de-icing salts or seawater have been investigated. Concrete cores were taken with and without cracks from surfaces with vertical and horizontal orientation. Carbonation in cracks was found on all de-iced structures, and a crack on a completely horizontal surface appeared to facilitate chloride ingress. Ingress of substances from seawater was found in all cracks from marine exposure. However, the impact of cracks on chloride ingress was unclear. Horizontal cracks on vertical surfaces appeared to facilitate self-healing.
The impact of substitution of cement paste with uncalcined clay (bentonite and kaolinite) in the range of 5% by volume of paste on the development of hydration and properties of mortar was investigated. Two issues were addressed, the expected filler effect of the dispersed sub-micron clay particles, and the possible chemical reactivity of the clay.
The study indicated that Portland cement paste may be modified by addition of well dispersed clay and that the impact includes accelerated cement hydration as well as altered distribution of products. Compressive strength development was accelerated, but later age strength was reduced, especially for the bentonite mixes. In contrast, microscopic porosity measurements indicated no detrimental impact on the coarse capillary porosity.
The investigation indicates that for durability related engineering properties, the application of uncalcined clay might be a potential means for reduction of the clinker factor in concrete in support of sustainability.
Several inspection methods can be used to assess the corrosion state of steel reinforcement in concrete. Especially for periodical field surveys and monitoring, non-destructive testing (NDT) methods are to be preferred as they do not cause any or very limited damage to the existing concrete. In this paper, the corrosion state of three reinforced concrete beams exposed to marine environment for 25 years was evaluated by measuring three parameters; electrochemical potential, concrete resistivity and corrosion rate. The measurements were performed with commercial devices. It was found that all devices are applicable for field inspections. Among the methods selected for the study, the electrochemical potential measured in a fine grid and analysed statistically offered the best possibility of evaluating the corrosion state; preferably in combination with selected excavations for determination of the level of corrosion.
The paper summarizes preliminary results on characterization of the microstructure and phase assemblage of mortar and concrete samples containing Portland and Portland-fly ash cement carbonated at either natural conditions, 60% RH and 1% CO2, 90% RH and 5% CO2 or 60% RH and 100% CO2. Different characterization techniques were used: thermogravimetric analysis to study the solid phases, SEM-EDS point analysis to investigate the chemical composition of the solid phases, optical microscopy to investigate the microstructure, and cold water extraction to characterize the chemical composition of the pore solution. The combined results on microstructure and phase assemblage indicate that carbonation up to 5% CO2 appears representative for natural carbonation. Pore solution analysis revealed similar trends for the three accelerated carbonation conditions.