Kerekes-Máthé Bernadette, Mártha Krisztina and Székely Melinda
Background: Identification of the characteristics of tooth agenesis is an important component in the understanding of the ethiology of this common developmental dental anomaly. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and the characteristics of tooth agenesis among patients from Tîrgu Mureș. Material and method: The present study is retrospective and descriptive, based on the evaluation of the patient’s dental records from 2004 to 2012 belonging to a pediatric dental office from Tîrgu Mureș. Orthopantomograms and anamnestic data of 947 children and young adults (365 male and 582 female) were analyzed. Results: The prevalence of tooth agenesis, excluding third molars, was 7.39%. The difference between the genders was statistically not significant (p = 0.09). The most frequently missing teeth were the upper second incisors, followed by the lower second premolars. The difference between the distribution of agenesis in the upper and lower jaws was statistically significant (p <0.0001). The distribution of dental agenesis between the anterior region and the lateral region of the maxilla and the mandible showed significant differences (p <0.0001). Symmetrical distribution of tooth agenesis was found more frequently (54.54%) than assymetrical distribution. Conclusions: The maxillary anterior region and the mandibular lateral region were the most affected by dental agenesis in the permanent dentition of the studied population. The maxilla was more affected than the mandible and bilateral forms of agenesis were more frequently than unilateral forms. The more extreme forms of agenesis were found amongst female
Andreea Borş, Cristina Molnar-Varlam and Melinda Székely
Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of erosive conditions on the wear resistance of aesthetic direct restorative materials. Methods: Six dental filling materials were tested: two composites (Filtek Z550 and X-tra fil), two compomers (Dyract Extra and Twinky Star) and two glass ionomers (Ketac Molar and Fuji II LC). Twenty disks (10mm×2mm) of each material were prepared (n=120) and kept in artificial saliva at 37˚C for 24 hours. Specimens were cycled in acidic soft drink (Coca-Cola) 5×/day, for 5’, over 30 days. Initial surface roughness ISR (Ra-μm) and final surface roughness FSR were measured using a profilometer. The wear rate was calculated as difference of final minus the initial roughness (ΔSR=FSR-ISR). For statistical analysis t-test and one-way ANOVA test were used by GraphPad Prism version 5.03 statistical software. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The erosive wear rates (mean±SD, μm) after exposure to acidic beverage were: 0.30±0.03 (Ketac Molar), 0.28±0.04 (Fuji II LC), 0.27±0.00 (Filtek Z550), 0.23±0.01 (X-tra fil), 0.20±0.00 (Twinky Star) and 0.14±0.01 Dyract Extra, respectively. There were significant differences between the tested materials (p<0.05). Conclusions: Dental filling materials had different behaviour under the same erosive condition, however all investigated aesthetic restorative materials showed surface degradation. These findings suggest that erosive wear resistance of tooth coloured restoratives could influence their longevity in intraoral acidic conditions. Acknowledgements: The study was supported by the Internal Research Grant no. 5/30.01.2013 of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tirgu Mureş.
Réka Gyergyay, Melinda Székely and Krisztina Mártha
Aims The objectives of the present survey were: 1) a systematic epidemiological investigation of dental fear and anxiety among children living in the central part of Romania and 2) to identify the most fearful aspects of dental care perceived by these children.
Methods In this cross-sectional study 406 schoolchildren, 170 males and 263 females, aged 11-18 yearsfrom two cities, Tirgu Mureş and Sfintu Gheorghe were assessed. The subjects’ dental fear was evaluated with the Romanian versions of Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) and Kleinknecht’s Dental Fear Survey (DFS), the anxiety level with Spielberger`s State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S, STAI-T) and their opinion about dentists with Getz’s Dental Beliefs Scale (DBS). Questionnaires were completed anonymously at school. The study was approved by theResearch Ethics Committeeof the University of Medicine and Pharmacy Tirgu Mureş. For statistical analysis t-test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation test were used by SPSS/PC statistics v. 17.0.
Results The mean (±SD) scores of the surveyed subjects (mean age 15.69±2.06 years) were high: MDAS 10.65 (±4.5), DFS 38.68 (±15.1), DBS 36.93 (±11.9), STAI-S 37.90 (±10.9) and STAI-T 41.04 (±9.9), respectively. There was a strong positive Pearson-correlation between MDAS and DFS scores (r=0.73; p≤0.01) and a somewhat lower correlation between these scales and the general anxiety scores. Except for DBS, statistically significantly higher scores were found in females for every questionnaire (t-test, p≤0.05). The 11-year-old group presented the lowest scores in every case, while the peak was around 14 years. Age was a statistically significant factor only in case of DBS, STAI-S and STAI-T (one-way ANOVA, p<0.05). Drilling and injection were considered the most fearful moments of a dental treatment. Subjects claimed dental practitioners working under time pressure and communication deficiencies.
Conclusions Having their special features, our findings were consistent with the local and international data. The subjects claim lack of time and communication deficiencies with the dentists. Identifying the reasons of dental fear and anxiety, might lead to solutions of avoidance or control.
Dörner Kinga, C Boeriu, Vass Hajnal, Nagy Melinda, Koszta Zsuzsa, Iurcov Raluca and Székely Melinda
Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the activity of the Emergency Dental Office of UPU SMURD in Tîrgu Mures since its establishment and also to compare it with the similar unit from Oradea.
Methods: The two-year retrospective and comparative study is a statistical processing of non-personal data regarding the emergency dental services in the UPU SMURD Tîrgu Mures and UPU SMURD Oradea, involving the data collected in the same period at both emergency dental offices. Data based on the records analysis of the patients who were consulted and treated at the Emergency Dental Office in UPU SMURD Tîrgu Mure between February 1, 2012 – February 1, 2014 compared with similar data from Oradea.
Results: Assessing the number of patients presented each month – first and second year – we can see that since the establishment of the Emergency Dental Office in Tîrgu Mure (no=12780), the number of patients showed a linear increase in the first year, and in the second year the constant number of patients present in the studied unit was higher than in the other center from Oradea (no=4886).
Conclusions: The large number of patients and the nature of the cases that were present in the Emergency Dental Office in the UPU SMURD Tîrgu Mure show how necessary the set-up of this unit was.
Background: Emergency dental care is provided at the Mureș County Emergency Hospital in Tîrgu Mureș since February 2012, however, there is little information available regarding its activity. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and diagnosis of dental emergency cases treated in this dental office over the first two years. Material and methods: This two-year retrospective study was based on the analysis of patients’ dental records who were treated at the Dental Office of the Mureș County Emergency Hospital in Tîrgu Mureș. Results: In the first year 5567 patients were treated, whereas in the second year their number was significantly higher, 7213 patients. Pulp infections presented the highest prevalence in both years: 32.38% and 34.74%, respectively. Compared to the first year (n = 1,803) significantly more cases (p = 0.001) were treated with this diagnosis in the second year (n = 2,506). Periodontal infections were significantly more frequent (p <0.001) in the second year compared to the first - 951 cases (13.18%) vs. 681 (12.23%) cases. Conclusions: The main reasons of emergency dental treatments were dental and periodontal infections. The results suggest that dental care is unaffordable to socially disadvantaged persons, and this fosters radical treatment of pain in this free of charge 24 h dental emergency office.
Objective: Regeneration is defined as a reconstruction of a lost part of the body in such a way that the structure and function of the lost tissue are completely restored. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical outcomes of intrabony defects treatment using regenerative periodontal therapy with enamel matrix proteins (Emdogain, EMD) with a control group.
Methods: Ten patients with chronic periodontitis were included in this randomized, controlled clinical study. Two groups received conservative periodontal therapy. In the test group, different teeth received regenerative treatment with EMD. In the control group teeth received solely conservative periodontal therapy. Pocket depth probing (PD) and bone reduction (based on X rays) were registered at baseline and after eight months in both groups. In the control group
Results: Both groups showed a significant reduction of PD. The teeth treated with EMD showed a significant attachment gain. Within the test group, the radiographic examination of the teeth treated with EMD showed no significant change, whereas the teeth in the control group showed significant bone reduction.
Conclusions: Intrabony defects in teeth treaded with EMD exhibit a substantially higher gain in clinical attachment and defect filling. The use of EMD in dental practice can prevent further bone loss.
Bernadette Kerekes-Máthé, Krisztina Mártha and Székely Melinda
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra-operator reliability of a 2D image analysis method for tooth dimension measurements.
Methods: Occlusal and vestibular surfaces of teeth from ten study models were captured with a digital camera. Images were transferred on a computer and different tooth dimensions (mesio-distal, occluso-gingival, vestibulo-oral and perimeter) were measured using the Image Pro Insight software. Measurements were repeated after two weeks. Fleiss' coefficients of reliability were calculated.
Results: A high degree of reliability has been established for every type of measurement: all coefficient values of reliability being not less than 0.95.
Conclusions: The 2D image analyzing system is an adequate alternative for measuring tooth dimensions. All measurements were in the excellent category of reliability. The method allows precise and repeatable measurements, generating an image database as well, available for future studies.
Background: Dental implants are useful tools and represent a widely spread technique for oral rehabilitation. Their long standingness is highly influenced by the mechanical and geometrical properties of the surrounding osseous tissue in which they are placed. In some unsuccessful cases though, the dental implant is exposed to masticatory forces and other functional acts, and osseous tissue may resorb near its vicinity, leading to the dental implants loss. We investigated the strain distribution inside the fixating substrate, given certain stages of its deterioration near the dental implants.
Material and methods: For our investigations we used cilindro-conical screw-type dental which were submitted to vertical forces between 0-1000 N. The dental implants were fixed inside a plastic material used in photo-elastic measurements.
To evaluate the strain distribution inside the fixing substrate, we used a non-contact, experimental investigation tool, the Video Image Correlation (VIC-3D) optical system. This system allows the implementation in the dental implants optimisation from stress-strain state point of view.
Results: The strain field distribution inside the fixating substrate was measured at three different levels of the dental implant, when it was loaded alone and in the case when there were loaded two dental implants simultaneously.
Conclusions: The most stresses are concentrated in the neck-area of the dental implant. If there are loaded two or more dental implants simultaneously, the distance between them influences strain distribution. The measurements were conducted in vitro and do not represent the in vivo conditions, but serve further important facts regarding biomechanical properties of dental implants.
Orsolya Beáta Birta, Bernadette Kerekes-Máthé, Krisztina Mártha, Hunor Pál Farkas, Andreea Bors, Cristina Molnar and Melinda Székely
Background: Epidemiological studies have reported an increasing prevalence of tooth wear, and general dental practitioners see a greater number of patients seeking treatment with worn dentition. Improper oral hygiene, unhealthy habits, occupational hazards, and potentially erosive processed foods seem to play a major role in the non-carious loss of dental hard tissue. The aim of this study is to assess the factors and cofactors that may play a major role in the genesis of dental attrition, dental abrasion, and, especially, dental erosion.
Material and methods: Seventy-nine consecutive patients, aged between 17 and 78 years, have enrolled in our study, completing a questionnaire regarding chronic illnesses, eating habits, and dental hygiene, followed by a dental clinical examination.
Results: The male-female ratio was 1.4:1, with a mean age of 35.6 years. Forty-four (55.7%) patients presented objective signs of tooth wear. Regarding oral hygiene habits, the use of a hard toothbrush is linked to increased tooth wear, while brushing in a circular motion seems to be the least abrasive. We found a considerable prevalence of bruxism (19%), which led to severe generalized attrition in almost half of such patients. The most popular drinks with erosive potential were coffee (58.2%), soft drinks (57%), and tea (24.1%), and extrinsic erosion was more frequent in patients younger than 30 years. Understandably, physiological tooth wear was more common in older patients. The questionnaire revealed that over 60% of patients have inaccurate knowledge of tooth wear.
Conclusions: Tooth wear is partially a progressive physiological process. Unfortunately, we see it increasing in younger patients due to pathological influencing factors. These include improper tooth brushing technique and materials, bruxism, dental prosthesis, dietary habits. Primordial and primary prevention is the key to reducing morbidity, health education being an essential part of it.