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  • Author: Melinda Kolcsár x
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Open access

Imre Annamária, Kolcsár Melinda, Groşan Alexandra, M Imre and Dogaru Maria Titica

Abstract

Objectives: Venlafaxine is an antidepressant, categorized as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) with suspected metabolic side effects. The aim of our study was to assess these metabolic effects in rats, using two different doses of venlafaxine.

Materials: Three groups of Wistar rats have been treated with venlafaxine during seven weeks. The rats have received a daily dose of 10mg/kg (D1) and 40 mg/kg (D2) while the control group (Dc) has received no treatment. Rats were given “ad libitum” access to food and water. The rats were weighted at treatment day 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49. After completion of venlafaxine treatment, the rats were sacrificed, blood was harvested and the following biochemical parameters have been determined from the centrifuged plasma: triglycerides, glucose and total cholesterol levels.

Results: Both the 10 mg/kg and the 40 mg/kg dose venlafaxine therapy resulted in a highly significant increase of rat’s weight. Compared with the control group the mean weight of D1 group has increased with 130.5 ±21.79 g (<0.01) while the mean weight of the second group increased with 94±24.16 g (p<0.01). In addition weight gain of D1 group was significantly higher than that of D2 group (p<0.01). Venlafaxine therapy induced significant increase in serum triglyceride levels (140.04±55.46 mg/dL p<0.01, 83.59±52.85 mg/dL p=0.05). This metabolic effect has been shown to be more evident in case of 10mg/kg dose therapy (p=0.03). Simultaneously, serum cholesterol levels have been reduced, however this decrease proved to be significant only in case of group D2 (p=0.03). Despite of increased triglyceride values, glucose levels were significantly decreased in both treated groups (133.33±36.18mg/dL p=0.05, 118.10±51.98 mg/dL p=0.02).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that venlafaxine administrated to rats has unwished dose related metabolic effects such as significant increase in weight and hypertriglyceridemia, however serum cholesterol and plasma glucose levels appears to be decreased by this medication.

Open access

Raluca-Monica Pop, Radu Mircea Neagoe, Melinda Kolcsar and Ionela Paşcanu

Abstract

Background: Neurofibromatosis type 1 is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with multiple neoplasms particularly those of ectodermal origin. Various endocrine pathologies are often present, among them, hyperparathyroidism and follicular thyroid lesion are very rare described and their coincidence in the same patient has not been described in the literature reviewed.

Subject: A 59-years-old woman with clinical manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1 developed dysphagia, dysphonia, choking sensation. Physical and imagistic examination revealed a multinodular goiter with microfollicular lesion on fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), elevated parathormone levels and severe osteoporosis. The surgically removed thyroid contained a nodule with follicular architecture of uncertain malignant potential; the parathyroid tissue appeared normal.

Discussion and conclusion: This case serves as a reminder to look for non-neurogenic tumors in patients with neurofibromatosis. Clinicians must be aware of the diverse clinical features of this genetic disorder.

Open access

Kolcsár Melinda, Gáll Zsolt, Bába László-István and Kun Imre Zoltán

Abstract

The relationship between antidepressants (AD) and metabolic syndrome (MS) can be approached from many perspectives. We can start from the mutuality of depression and MS: depression often causes MS and vice versa; however, the two diseases aggravate each other. Altered glucocorticoid secretion - among others - may be a common etiological factor for depression and MS. Enhanced glucocorticoid production leads both to sleep disorders and insulin resistance, and several antidepressants cause obesity and insulin resistance. In addition, sympathetic nervous system activity increases in depression, together with the elevated production of counter-insulin hormones such as catecholamines (adrenaline) and glucocorticoids. From the components of MS, body weight changes can be most easily followed by the patient. The obesogenic mechanisms of AD drugs are different. The H1-receptor blocking agents have the most important weight gaining effect, followed by the 5-HT2c-receptor blocking and/or down-regulating ADs. The fattening effect of mirtazapine, paroxetine, and tricyclic antidepressants are based on such central mechanisms. Blocking of alpha1-receptors contributes to the obesogenic effects of certain drugs by inducing sedation: this has been confirmed in case of imipramine, amitriptyline, and doxepin. Fluoxetine behaves differently depending on the dose and duration of treatment: while at the usual doses it induces weight loss at the beginning of therapy, its initial anorexigenic effects reverses during prolonged use; while its activation effect at high doses is favorable in bulimia. The selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine reduces appetite, similarly to bupropion, which inhibits dopamine reuptake as well. We highlight the effect of fluoxetine on direct adipogenicity, mentioning its preadipocyteadipocyte transformation-reducing and adipocyte proliferation-inhibiting activity, as well as its ability to enhance fat cell autophagy.

Open access

Zsolt Gáll, Szabolcs Koncz, Orsolya Gáll and Melinda Kolcsár

Abstract

Objective: This study evaluated the anticonvulsant action of lacosamide (LCS), a novel drug that was recently approved for the treatment of partial or secondarily generalized seizures, using an animal model of generalized epilepsy induced by repetitive pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) administration in rats. The main goal was to evaluate the behavioral pattern of lacosamide action by classifying seizures according to a modi Racine-scale. Furthermore, the reproducibility of the win-PTZ kindling model of epilepsy, a recently described variant of the standard PTZ-kindling model, was also assessed.

Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (n=16) were divided into two groups and underwent the win-PTZ-kindling protocol in two independent trials. After finishing the kindling procedure, all animals, which presented stage 5 seizures were tested for the anticonvulsant action of lacosamide at three different doses (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg).

Results: The maximal severity of seizures decreased and the latency to stage 3-5 seizures increased when the animals were treated with lacosamide at a single dose of 10 mg/kg compared to saline pretreatment (p < 0.05), both parameter reflecting an anticonvulsant action of the drug. Unfortunately, the number of stage 3-5 seizures also increased, but not significantly. The win-PTZ kindling model showed an adequate reproducibility between different trials, however, the number of fully kindled rats was lower than previously reported.

Conclusions: Lacosamide showed a convincing anticonvulsant action in the win-PTZ kindling model of epilepsy by preventing the generalization of seizures. The win-PTZ kindling model was proved to be useful for studying epileptogenesis and the anticonvulsant action of drugs.

Open access

László-István Bába, Zsolt Gáll, István Lóránt Bíró, Tibor Mezei, Imre Zoltán Kun and Melinda Kolcsár

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment on preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) expression in subcutaneous, visceral and brown adipose tissues, and on the size of vacuoles in a dipocytes obtained from the perirenal regions in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were treated with FLX at two different doses and fourteen animals received vehicle. After 40 days of treatment, the subcutaneous, perirenal and interscapular adipose tissues were collected. Pref-1 expression was examined using an immunohistochemical method and the vacuolar area was measured in stained sections. In the low dose FLX group, the size of vacuoles increased both in male and female animals. The high dose of FLX also induced a significant increase of vacuole size, but only in male animals. Neither of the two doses of FLX has significantly affected the Pref-1 expression in any type of adipose tissue.