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Gülfem Sezen-Balçikanli and Mehmet Sezen


The objective of this study is to determine the correlation between the professional futsal players’ (futsallers’) empathic tendency and the numbers of the cards they are shown and the fouls they commit. Empathy was assessed through a Turkish version of Interpersonal Reactivity Index-IRI. The original IRI takes as its starting point from the notion that empathy consists of a set of separate but related constructs, and seeks to provide measures of dispositional tendencies in several areas. The instrument contains four (seven-items) subscales, each tapping a separate facet of empathy. The items are scored on a 5-point Likert scale, with 0 (does not correspond at all to me) and 4 (corresponds exactly to me) serving as extreme points. Research group is composed of total 76 professional male futsal players who took part in Efes Pilsen Futsal League games with 7 teams from Ankara region. Age averages of all the participants were between the ages of 18 and 38 and their age average range was from 24 to 26. As a statistical method in the assessment of the research data; in order to examine the correlation between the general average, standart deviation, mean per team, standart deviation and professional futsal players’ empathy levels and the number of the cards they are shown (yellow/red) and their fouls, Spearman Rank Correlation was utilized. The results obtained demonstrate that there is a relationship between empathy and yellow/red cards and fouls. It is considered that the empathy practices to be developed for the sportspersons will develop perspective taking and interpersonal communication between them, enhance moral viewpoint and moral attitudes in sports in them, and reduce the aggressive behaviours and self-seeking actions.

Open access

Mehmet Taner, Bülent Sezen and Hakan Mıhcı

An Alternative Human Development Index Considering Unemployment

The Human Development Index (HDI) has played an influential role in the debate on human development (HD) for many years. However, no index is perfect and neither is the HDI of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). This paper aims to construct a new composite index for the development performance of a sample of 30 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries by adding a fourth indicator, namely the unemployment index, to the calculation of HDI. The addition of the unemployment factor to the HDI as a new indicator has the potential to make the index more comprehensive and present a suitable approach for assessing the development performance of countries.

Open access

Hakan Mihci, Mehmet Tolga Taner and Bulent Sezen


Purpose - The current HDI has a limited capacity to reflect the human condition and country rankings in an accurate way. In addition, the main critiques on the HDI suggest that it uses very few or perhaps the wrong indicators in measuring human development levels in countries. This paper aims to investigate whether the inclusion of employment as a criterion in the HDI would yield a different ranking of nations.

Design/methodology/approach - In this study, estimates of the proposed Employment-adjusted Human Development Index (E-HDI) are provided for seventy-seven countries for the 2000-2007 period, and comparisons are made both for changes in the human development index (HDI) and rankings over time in each country and for differences between the E-HDI and the UNDP’s HDI across countries.

Findings - The experience of a relatively large number of 77 sample countries has offered promising results for the path to improve the current status of the HDI, and hence, to overcome its weakness in terms of ranking of countries. The additional indicator, i.e. employment, improves the explanatory power of the HDI and makes significant contributions to its reliability.

Research limitations/implications - The major limitation of the present study has been the lack of data for a number of the human development indicators for the rest of the countries in the world.

Practical implications - The employment-adjusted index has great potential to make the HDI more operational.

Social implications - By means of E-HDI, the human development performance of the countries can be better evaluated and compared with other countries by using additional information obtained from the employment position of their citizens.

Originality/value - This will be the first paper in the literature that incorporates employment into the HDI..