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  • Author: Mehmet Ozkan Timurkan x
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Introduction: Bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (BPIV3) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) are the cause of respiratory disease in cattle worldwide. With other pathogens, they cause bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in ruminants. The aim of the study was the detection and molecular characterisation of BPIV3 and BRSV from nasal swabs and lung samples of cows in and around the Erzurum region of eastern Turkey. Material and Methods: In total, 155 samples were collected. Of animals used in the study 92 were males and 63 females. The age of the animals was between 9 months and 5 years, mean 1.4 years. Most males were in the fattening period and being raised in open sheds; females were in the lactating period and kept in free stall barns. All samples were tested for the presence of viral genes using RT-PCR. Gene-specific primers in a molecular method (RT-PCR) identified BRSV (fusion gene) and BPIV3 (matrix gene) strains at the genus level. Results: RNA from BRSV and BPIV3 was detected in two (1.29%) and three (1.93%) samples, respectively, one of each of which was sequenced and the sequences were aligned with reference virus strains. Phylogenetic analyses clustered the strains in genotype C/BPIV3 and subgroup III/BRSV. Conclusion: The results indicate that BRSV and BPIV3 contribute to bovine respiratory disease cases in Turkey. This is the first report on their detection and molecular characterisation in ruminants in Turkey.



Avian polyomavirus (APV) and psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV) induce contagious and persistent diseases that affect the beaks, feathers, and immune systems of companion birds. APV causes hepatitis, ascites, hydropericardium, depression, feather disorders, abdominal distension, and potentially death. PBFDV can induce progressive beak deformity, feather dystrophy, and plumage loss. We conducted the first prevalence survey of both APV and PBFDV infections in companion birds in eastern Turkey.

Material and Methods

A total of 113 fresh dropping samples from apparently healthy companion birds were collected in a random selection. The dropping samples were analysed for PBFDV and APV by PCR. Positive samples were sequenced with the Sanger method. The sequence was confirmed through alignment and the phylogenetic tree generated through the maximum likelihood method computationally.


PBFDV and APV were detected in a respective 48.7% and 23.0% of samples. Coinfection was found in 12.4% of the samples, these all being from budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). APV and PBFDV were detected in budgerigar and cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) samples.


This report provides a foundation for future studies on the influence of these viruses on the health of companion birds. These high positive rates for both pathogens emphasise that healthy M. undulatus and N. hollandicus in eastern Turkey may be prone to the emergence and spread of APV and PBFDV with subclinical potential.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations in weaned calves with moderate and severe bovine respiratory disease. Eighteen healthy weaned calves (group I), 18 weaned calves with moderate bovine respiratory disease (group II) and 18 weaned calves with severe bovine respiratory disease (group III) were included in the study. Clinical signs and severity of respiratory disease according to clinical index scores were determined. Blood cell counts and cardiac biomarkers, such as serum cTnI concentrations and creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were determined in all groups. Temperature and respiratory and pulse rates were significantly increased in calves with moderate and severe bovine respiratory disease compared to healthy calves (P < 0.05). Serum cTnI concentrations and LDH activities were significantly increased in the calves with severe bovine respiratory disease compared to healthy calves and calves with moderate bovine respiratory disease (P < 0.05). A significant increase in white blood cell counts in calves with moderate and severe bovine respiratory disease and lymphopenia and neutrophilia in calves with severe bovine respiratory disease were also found. The study suggests that severe bovine respiratory disease causes increased serum cTnI concentrations in weaned calves.


Concurrent occurence of bovine papular stomatitis, rotavirus infection and cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed postmortem in a 7-days-old calf from a farm containing 65 calves of different ages. Multifocal papular stomatitis and rumenitis were present on necropsy. While polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed rotavirus and papular stomatitis virus infections; bovine viral diarrhea, foot and mouth disease, bovine papilloma virus and coronavirus could not be detected. Overall; concurrent co-infection with bovine papular stomatitis virus, rotavirus and cryptosporidium spp. was reported for the first time.