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  • Author: Mehmet Kiliç x
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Analysis of diclofenac in water samples using in situ derivatization-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

Abstract

A novel micro-extraction technique for a rapid and sensitive analysis of diclofenac (DCF) in water samples has been developed. DCF was derivatized and extracted simultaneously using vortex-assisted liquid-liquid micro-extraction (VALLME) prior to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The effects of extraction solvent volume, extraction and derivatization time and ionic strength of the sample were studied using 23 factorial experimental design. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: 200 μL of chloroform, 25 μL of N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) derivatization reagent, vortex extraction and derivatization time 5 min at 3000 rpm. The extraction recovery for different fortification levels was 98 %. Also, the proposed micro-extraction method exhibited results comparable with the solid phase extraction of real water samples. The proposed one-step VALLME and derivatization method is simpler and faster than the conventional extraction and derivatization methods used for the determination of DCF in real water samples.

Open access
Arising Prevalence of OXA-48 producer Escherichia coli and OXA-48 with NDM co-producer Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains

Abstract

Background/aim: This prospective study aimed to determine the presence of the most common carbapenemase genes, blaOXA-48, blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM and blaNDM on carbapenem resistant clinical K.pneumoniae and E.coli isolates. Materials and methods: Isolates were selected according to EUCAST guideline; gradient test and disc diffusion with both meropenem and ertapenem discs. Resistance rates of these isolates to other antimicrobial agents were also examined by disc diffusion method. Carbapenem resistance gene were investigated by using Real-Time PCR. Results: A total of 3845 E. coli and 1689 K.pneumoniae isolates from clinical samples between January 2015 and April 2017 were evaluated. The 419 isolates were found as carbapenem resistant but only the first resistant isolate (n=155; 126 K.pneumoniae and 29 E.coli) of each patient were included. Carbapenem resistant isolates were most frequently isolated from intensive care units (48.8%). Colistin was the most effective antibiotic (91.0%). The 121 (78.1%) of the tested isolates were positive for OXA-48 (103 K.pneumoniae and 18 E.coli) and 9 K. pneumoniae carrying blaNDM were also positive for blaOXA-48. VIM, IMP and KPC type carbapenemases were not detected in any isolates. Conclusion: Carbapenem-resistant pathogens have been shown to be able to develop resistance mechanisms with more than one carbapenemase encoding gene.

Open access
Structural analysis and dielectric relaxation mechanism of conducting polymer/volcanic basalt rock composites

Abstract

In this work, polypyrrole and polythiophene conducting polymers (CPs) have been synthesized and doped with volcanic basalt rock (VBR) in order to improve their dielectric properties for technological applications. The structure and morphology of the composites with different VBR doping concentrations were characterized by FT-IR and SEM analyses. The best charge storage ability was achieved for maximum VBR doping concentration (50.0 wt.%) for both CPs. Dielectric relaxation types of the composites were determined as non-Debye type due to non-zero absorption coefficient and observation of semicircles whose centers were below Z′ axis at the Nyquist plots. It was also ascertained that VBR doping makes the molecular orientation easier than for non-doped samples and reduced energy requirement of molecular orientation. In addition, AC conductivity was totally masked by DC conductivity for all samples at low frequency.

Open access
Is Oxidative Stress Associated with Activation and Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

Summary

Background: We aimed to determine the levels of total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and paraoxonase1/arylesterase levels in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and the relation be - tween these molecules and the activity index of the disease. Methods: Eighty IBD patients (ulcerative colitis (UC)/Crohn disease (CD) 40/40) and 80 control group participants were included in the study. Oxidative stress parameters were measured using the colorimetric method. As disease activity indexes, the endoscopic activity index (EAI) was used for UC and the CD activity index (CDAI) was used for CD. Results: In IBD patients, mean TAS (1.3±0.2 vs 1.9±0.2, respectively; p<0.001) and arylesterase (963.9±232.2 vs 1252.9±275, respectively; p<0.001) levels were found to be lower and TOS level (5.6±1.6 vs 4.0±1.0, respectively; p<0.001) and OSI rate (4.5±1.6 vs 2.2±0.8, respectively; p<0.001) were found to be higher compared to the control group. A strong positive correlation was found between EAI and TOS levels (r=0.948, p<0.001) and OSI rate (r=0.894, p<0.001) for UC patients. A very strong positive correlation was found between EAI and TOS levels (r=0.964, p<0.001) and OSI rate (r=0.917, p<0.001) for CD patients. It was found in a stepwise regression model that C-reactive protein, OSI and arylesterase risk factors were predictors of IBD compared to the control group. Conclusion: Increased oxidative stress level in IBD patients and the detection of OSI rate as an independent predictor for disease activity indexes lead to the idea that oxidative stress might be related to the pathogenesis of IBD.

Open access