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Open access

Marcelo Pereira and Mauro Gonçalves

Effects of Fatigue Induced by Prolonged Gait When Walking on the Elderly

Purpose. Fatigue has been pointed as a fall risk in the elderly; however, the effects of prolonged gait on neuromuscular recruitment and on its pattern remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prolonged gait on neuromuscular recruitment levels and spatial-temporal gait variables. Methods. Eight healthy older women (age: 72.63 ± 6.55 years) walked at their preferred walking speed for twenty minutes on a treadmill. The Root Mean Square (RMS) from the vastus-lateralis, femoral biceps, tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius muscles were determined at the first and last minute of the test during the moments of Heel Strike (HS), Terminal Stance and Terminal Swing (TS). In addition, coactivation in the knee and ankle as well as the stride cadence and length were measured in the test. The two RMS data (taken at the first and last minute) were compared by means of a Student's t-test. Results. Twenty minutes of walking induced fatigue in the subjects, as observed through an increase in RMS, notably during the HS and TS. Coactivation was also influenced by the prolonged gait test. The only gait phase where a risk of falling was enhanced was the HS. Nonetheless, subjects developed strategies to maintain a safe motor pattern, which was evidenced by an increase in stride length and a decrease in stride cadence. Conclusion. Tests lasting just twenty minutes on a treadmill were enough to induce fatigue in older adults. However, the level of fatigue was not enough to present a danger or fall risk to elderly individuals.

Open access

Anderson Oliveira, Rogério Corvino, Mauro Gonçalves, Fabrizio Caputo and Benedito Denadai

Maximal Isokinetic Peak Torque and EMG Activity Determined by Shorter Ranges of Motion

Purpose. Isokinetic tests are often applied to assess muscular strength and EMG activity, however the specific ranges of motion used in testing (fully flexed or extended positions) might be constrictive and/or be painful for patients with injuries or under-going rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different ranges of motion (RoM) when determining maximal EMG during isokinetic knee flexion and extension with different types of contractions and velocities. Methods. Eighteen males had EMG activity recorded on the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles during five maximal isokinetic concentric and eccentric contractions for the knee flexors and extensors at 60° · s-1 and 180° · s-1. The root mean square of EMG was calculated at three different ranges of motion: (1) a full range of motion (90°-20° [0° = full knee extension]); (2) a range of motion of 20° (between 60°-80° and 40°-60° for knee extension and flexion, respectively) and (3) at a 10° interval around the angle where peak torque is produced. EMG measurements were statistically analyzed (ANOVA) to test for the range of motion, contraction velocity and contraction speed effects. Coefficients of variation and Pearson's correlation coefficients were also calculated among the ranges of motion. Results. Predominantly similar (p > 0.05) and well-correlated EMG results (r > 0.7, p ≤ 0.001) were found among the ranges of motion. However, a lower coefficient of variation was found for the full range of motion, while the 10° interval around peak torque at 180° · s-1 had the highest coefficient, regardless of the type of contraction. Conclusions. Shorter ranges of motion at around the peak torque angle provides a reliable indicator when recording EMG activity during maximal isokinetic parameters. It may provide a safer alternative when testing patients with injuries or undergoing rehabilitation.

Open access

Mauro Gonçalves and Anderson Souza Castelo Oliveira

Abstract

Purpose. To verify the effects of resistance training at the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) based on one-repetition maximum strength (1RM), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (PE) and endurance time (EndT). Methods. Nineteen subjects (training group [TG]: n = 10; control group [CG]: n = 9), performed 1-min bicep curl exercises sets at 25%, 30%, 35% and 40% 1RM. Electromyography (biceps brachii and brachiorradialis), HR and PE were registered. Biceps brachii EMGFT was used to create a load index for an eight-week resistance training programme (three sets until exhaustion/session, two sessions/week) for the TG. The CG only attended one session in the first week and another session in the last week of the eight-week training period for EndT measurement. EndT was determined from the number of repetitions of each of the three sets performed in the first and last training sessions. After training, 1RM, EMGFT, EndT, HR and PE at the different bicep curl load intensities were again measured for both groups. Results. Increases in 1RM (5.9%, p < 0.05) and EndT (> 60%, p < 0.001) after training were found. In addition, PE was reduced at all load intensities (p < 0.05), while no changes were found for HR and EMGFT after training. Conclusions. Strength-endurance training based on the EMGFT improved muscular endurance and also, to a lesser extent, muscular strength. Moreover, the reduced levels of physical exertion after training at the same intensity suggest that endurance training exercises may improve comfort while performing strength exercises.

Open access

Mauro de Souza e Silva, Adalberto de Souza Rabelo, Rodrigo Vale, Max Ferrão, Leila Gonçalves, Marcos de Sá Rego Fortes, Sérgio Moreira and Estélio Dantas

Effects of two kinds of aerobic training on body fat content and serum lipid profile in cadets

Study aim: To assess the effects of aerobic training on body fat content and serum lipid profile.

Material and methods: A group of 45 male members of Brazilian Military Police Academy, aged 18 - 32 years, were subjected randomly assigned into 3 subgroups and to 12-week programmes: aerobic fatmax zone training (FG; n = 18), traditional military training (TM; n = 15) and non-training control group (C; n = 12). Body fat content (3 skinfolds), serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides), waist circumference (WC) and O2max (12-min test) were determined.

Results: O2max significantly (p<0.05) increased and body fat content decreased in both experimental group compared with the control one. Significant (p<0.05) reductions in WC and LDL vs. control group were observed in the TM group only.

Conclusions: The applied aerobic training induced a decrease in percent body fat irrespectively of the kind of training.

Open access

Carla Cristina Gonçalves Rosado, Lúcio Mauro Da Silva Guimarães, Miranda Titon, Douglas Lau, Leonardo Rosse, Marcos Deon Vilela De Resende and Acelino Couto Alfenas

Abstract

Ceratocystis wilt, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata, is one of the most damaging diseases in eucalyptus plantations worldwide. Although there are resistant genotypes, the genetic basis of resistance is still poorly understood. In this paper we studied the resistance level by a stem inoculation experiment of genotypes of Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla and estimated the heritability and gains of selection in families derived from controlled interspecific crosses. In both species, highly resistant as well as highly susceptible genotypes to Ceratocystis wilt were found. Out of 21 parents assessed, twelve were resistant and nine susceptible. Estimates of individual narrow (50%) and broad (59%) sense heritability suggested a high degree of genetic control and low allelic dominance of the trait. There was great genetic variation among and within families, a fact that contributes to high heritability and genetic gain. A genetic gain in lesion size of up to -74.4% was obtained from selection of the 50 best clones in the evaluated families, i.e., the mean lesion length in the progeny population can be reduced by 74,4%.