Cystic Adrenal Lesions - Analysis of Indications and Results of Treatment
Cysts are a rare pathology of adrenal glands. As the development of new diagnostic techniques takes place, the occurrence of adrenal cystic lesions has been rapidly increasing. The majority of them are solid adrenal lesions, but localized fluid collections are also more frequently diagnosed. In case of solid adrenal lesions, there are straight indications for surgery, but on the other hand there are no clear guidelines and recommendations in case of adrenal cysts.
The aim of the study was to analyze surgical methods and evaluate treatment effects in patients who were qualified for laparoscopic adrenalectomy due to adrenal cystic lesions.
Metarial and methods. Identical criteria were used to qualify patients with solid and cystic lesions of the adrenal gland for surgery. Out of the whole number of 345 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for adrenal tumors, 28 had adrenal cysts. 16 of them (57%) were women and 12 (43%) men. The average age of the studied group was 46.4 years (25-62 years). The average cyst diameter in CT was 5.32 cm (1.1-10 cm). Most of the lesions were hormonally inactive (22 patients), but in 6 cases increased level of adrenal hormones was observed.
Results. Pathological analysis revealed 4 (14%) pheochromocytomas and 2 (7%) dermoid cysts. In case of 22 (79%) patients, the postoperative material was profiled by pathologists as insignificant according to potential neoplasmatic transformation risk: 5 (17.5%) - endothelial vascular cysts, 3 (11%) endothelial lymphatic cysts, 7 (25.5%) pseudocysts, 3 (11%) simple cysts, 2 (7%) bronchogenic cysts, 1 (3.5%) - cortical adenoma and 1 (3.5%) cyst was of myelolipoma type.
Conclusions. Based on the performed research and previous experience in treating patients with adrenal lesions we can conclude that application of the same evaluating algorithm for both cystic and solid lesions is valid.