Thirty-nine plant specimens of six Salvia species were collected from different localities of the Alborz mountain region in Iran and studied for morphological and genetic variability and species relationship. Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) molecular markers showed a high degree of within-species and interspecific genetic variability in Salvia. Analysis of molecular variance and Hickory tests showed significant molecular difference among the studied populations. A principal coordinate analysis plot of morphological characters grouped the species into two distinct groups, supporting their taxonomic treatment. This was partly supported by ISSR networking. The Mantel test did not show a correlation between genetic distance and the geographical distance of the studied populations. STRUCTURE and reticulation analyses revealed some degree of gene fl ow among the species. The present study showed that ISSR molecular markers could be used in Salvia species delimitation along with morphological study.
Helichrysum oocephalum is a medicinal plant of the genus Helichrysum that have limited distribution in Iran. Local geographical populations may differ in their genetic content and form different gene pools. Therefore, we carried out population genetic investigation and morphological studies in five geographical populations of Helichrysum oocephalum by using ISSR molecular markers. AMOVA produced the significant genetic differences. The mean Nm value revealed some degree of gene flow among Helichrysum oocephalum 8. Molecular and morphological analysis indicated that we have 2 groups in the studied populations. The present findings may be of use in the conservation of this medicinal plant in Iran.
This study conducted to determine relationship among and within Iranian Helichrysum species (Asteraceae). In this study based on ISSR markers, the highest percentage of ISSR loci polymorphism (54.7%) occurred in H. armenium. The highest gene diversity over loci (1.224), Shannon’s Information Index (0.224%) and Expected Heterozygosity (0.142%) occurred in H. armenium (0.18) and the lowest of these parameters (0%) were observed in H. araxinum, H. graveolens, H. persicum and H. psychrophilum. The highest genetic similarity occurred between H. armenium and H. rubicundum (0.989), while the lowest was between H. polyphyllum and H. graveolens (0.213). The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), showed significant genetic variation among (24%) and within (76%) species. In morphological analysis traits such as indumentum, resting bud, achene length, achenial papillae, dimension of receptacle and form and apex of phyllaries were main diagnostic features. Results obtained from the morphological cluster were greatly consistent with the molecular data, to elucidating taxonomic relationships, as well as both attributed the higher diversity in H. armenium and H. rubicundum in comparison with other species and also indicated that H. persicum is a member of H. oocephalum species. Totally we confirmed the presence of 18 species in Iran.
Tamarix L. play important role in preventing deforestation in Iran. Tamarix species exhibit wide range of morphological variation therefore, the species delimitation become difficult. This is further complicated due to similarity of morphological characters in closely related species and the occurrence of inter-specific hybridization. The present study was performed to identify Tamarix species and their potential hybrids in Semnan Province of Iran. We used ITS and ISSR and 42 morphological characters for our investigation. Molecular phylogeny of the studied species and their relationship was not in agreement with the species tree of morphological characters and with taxonomic treatment of the genus. HGT tree of ITS and morphological data obtained revealed the occurrence of inter-specific hybridization or introgression between Tamarix species.
Lallemantia royleana (Benth.) Benth. (Family Lamiaceae), is one of the most popular medicinal plants in Iran. It is an herbaceous pant that is commonly known as “Lady mantle”. The vernacular name of Lallemantia royleana’s seed is Balangu or Balangu Shirazi that is used as a source of medicine. Medicinal plants are very important from economic point of view in Iran and several large industries are focused on medicinal plants cultivation, extraction and export. Therefore, providing data on the biology of these plants is important for the country. Lallemantia royleana grows in different parts of Iran and forms several local populations. Genetic, morphological and biochemical divergence of geographical populations are well known in plant species. We have no report on population genetic structure, genetic fragmentation, local adaptation and gen flow of Lallemantia royleana populations in the country. Therefore, the present population genetics investigation was programmed to produce data on above said questions. Randomly collected plants of 7 geographical regions were studied by ISSR molecular markers. This information can be used in hybridization and gene conservation of this medicinal plant in Iran.
The genus Crocus L. (Iridaceae) is monophyletic and contains about 100 species throughout the world. Crocus species have horticultural, medicinal and pharmacological importance. Saffron is the dried styles of C. sativus and is one of the world’s most expensive spices by weight. Controversy exits about the taxonomy of the genus and the species relationship. Exploring genetic diversity and inter-specific cross-ability are important tasks for conservation of wild taxa and for breeding of cultivated C. sativus. The present study was performed to study genetic variability and population structure in five Crocus L. species including Crocus almehensis Brickell & Mathew, C. caspius Fischer & Meyer, C. speciosus Marschall von Biberstein, C. haussknechtii Boissier, and C. sativus L. by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. We also used published internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences to study species relationship and compare the results with ISSR data. The results revealed a high degree of genetic variability both within and among the studied species. Neighbor joining (NJ) tree and network analysis revealed that ISSR markers are useful in Crocus species delimitation. Population fragmentation occurred in C. caspius and C. sativus. Both ISSR and sequenced based analyses separated C. sativus from the other studied species. Close genetic affinity of C. sativus and C. pallisii and inter-specific gene flow was supported by both data sets.
Species identification is fundamentally important within the fields of biology, biogeography, ecology and conservation. The genus Geranium L. (Geraniaceae) comprises about 430 species distributed throughout most parts of the world. According to the most recent treatments, subg. Geranium is the largest subgenus with over 370 species classified in ten sections. The subg. Geranium is represented in Iran by 13 species. These species are grouped 3 sections. In spite vast distribution of many Geranium species that grow in Iran, there are not any available report on their genetic diversity, mode of divergence and patterns of dispersal.
Therefore, we performed molecular (ISSR markers) and morphological studies of 102 accessions from 13 species of Geranium (subg. Geranium) that were collected from different habitats in Iran. The aims of present study are: 1) can ISSR markers identify Geranium species, 2) what is the genetic structure of these taxa in Iran, and 3) to investigate the species inter-relationship? The present study revealed that combination of morphological and ISSR data can identify the species.