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Open access

Jarosław Gocławski, Joanna Sekulska-Nalewajko, Ewa Gajewska and Marzena Wielanek

An automatic segmentation method for scanned images of wheat root systems with dark discolourations

The analysis of plant root system images plays an important role in the diagnosis of plant health state, the detection of possible diseases and growth distortions. This paper describes an initial stage of automatic analysis—the segmentation method for scanned images of Ni-treated wheat roots from hydroponic culture. The main roots of a wheat fibrous system are placed separately in the scanner view area on a high chroma background (blue or red). The first stage of the method includes the transformation of a scanned RGB image into the HCI (Hue-Chroma-Intensity) colour space and then local thresholding of the chroma component to extract a binary root image. Possible chromatic discolourations, different from background colour, are added to the roots from blue or red chroma subcomponent images after thresholding. At the second stage, dark discolourations are extracted by local fuzzy c-means clustering of an HCI intensity image within the binary root mask. Fuzzy clustering is applied in local windows around the series of sample points on roots medial axes (skeleton). The performance of the proposed method is compared with hand-labelled segmentation for a series of several root systems.

Open access

Katarzyna Bergier, Elżbieta Kuźniak, Marzena Wielanek, Aleksandra Królicka and Maria Skłodowska

We compared the biochemical profiles of Physalis ixocarpa hairy roots transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC and A4 strains with non-transformed root cultures. The studied clones of A4- and ATCC-induced hairy roots differed significantly; the latter showed greater growth potential and greater ability to produce secondary metabolites (tropane alkaloids) and to biotransform hydroquinone to arbutin. We compared glucose content, alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activity, and L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity. We analyzed markers of prooxidant/antioxidant homeostasis: catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, oxidase, glutathione peroxidase and transferase activity, and the levels of ascorbate, glutathione, tocopherol and lipid peroxidation. We found that transformation induced strain-specific regulation, including regulation based on redox signals, determining the rate of allocation of carbon and nitrogen resources to secondary metabolism pathways. Our results provide evidence that A. rhizogenes strain-specific modification of primary metabolites contributed to regulation of secondary metabolism and could determine the ability of P. ixocarpa hairy root clones to produce tropane alkaloids and to convert exogenously applied hydroquinone to pharmaceutically valuable arbutin. Of the studied parameters, glucose content, L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and alanine aminotransferases activity may be indicators of the secondary metabolite-producing potential of different P. ixocarpa hairy root clones.

Open access

Ewa Gajewska, Daniel Drobik, Marzena Wielanek, Joanna Sekulska-Nalewajko, Jarosław Gocławski, Janusz Mazur and Maria Skłodowska

Abstract

Hydroponically grown wheat seedlings were treated with 50 μM N i and/or 15 μM Se. After a 7-day culture period, their growth parameters, N i, Se, F e, and M g contents, electrolyte leakage, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and photochemical activity of photosystem II were determined. Exposure of wheat seedlings to N i alone resulted in reduction in the total shoot and root lengths, by 22% and 50%, respectively. Addition of Se to the N i-containing medium significantly improved the growth of these organs, compared to the seedlings subjected to N i alone. Application of Se decreased the accumulation of N i in shoots and roots and partially alleviated the N i-induced decrease in F e and M g concentations in shoots. Electrolyte leakage increased in response to N i stress, but in shoots it was diminished by Se supplementation. Exposure to N i led to a decrease in chlorophyll a and b contents and enhancement of chlorophyll a/b ratio, but did not influence the concentration of carotenoids. Enrichment of the N i-containing medium with Se significantly increased chlorophyll b content, compared to the seedlings treated with N i alone. Photochemical activity, estimated in terms of the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II , decreased in response to N i treatment but was significantly improved by simultaneous addition of Se. Results of our study suggest that alleviation of N i toxicity in wheat seedlings by Se supplementation may be related to limitation of N i uptake.

Open access

Joanna Sekulska-Nalewajko, Jarosław Gocławski, Marzena Wielanek, Ewa Gajewska and Szymon Tamborski

Abstract

This paper presents a method of automatic recognition of thiarubrine canals in images obtained with Optical Coherence Tomography technique. The plant material was the Ri-transformed root culture of South American herb Schkuhria pinnata. The series of highresolution OCT B-scans for the study were collected using custom made experimental system operating light of 800 nm central wavelength. The method reduces significant artefacts and uses region growing approach adapted to specific features of OCT images. Results of the identification have been compared with data obtained by specialist for selected B-scans. The algorithm accuracy was also verified using a simple numeric phantom.