Contemporary discourse on the international and national level of individual countries concerning the dilemma of sustainable development and the future of societies pays particular attention to the phenomenon of migration in Europe. The article aims to identify social factors, especially migration processes, affecting sustainable development in Europe and Poland. Synchronization of economic, social and environmental capital is to prevent the creation of one-line development plans. In addition, it is intended to eliminate potential conflicts related to uneven development. The starting point for the considerations is the definition proposed by I. Sachs "Sustainable development is a process by which it is possible to harmonize the exploitation of all natural resources, direct investment and technical and institutional changes, as well as meet the current and future needs of people according to the production and assimilation capacity of ecosystems" (Sachs, 2000) [Own translation from Polish].Specific questions and research problems arise What impact do contemporary migration processes have on sustainable development? Is sustainable development possible in a situation of growing social disproportions? How do economic migrants affect sustainable development? Foreign students, (migrants), as the capital building large urban centers.