The study contains an overview of earnings management tools of reporting entities and capital groups in Poland. Relations between the phenomenon of earnings management and financial reporting policy have been analysed. A research problem related to the significance and application of particular earnings management tools as perceived by practitioners (accountants, executive board members, specialists) has been discussed. Selected tools of earnings management, usually linked with operations, are perceived to be used more intensively. The conducted analysis shows that in the opinion of the surveyed respondents the most effective instrument influencing the desired level of results presented in a financial statement is carrying out transactions under conditions which ensure the achievement of a reported goal. This applies also to capital groups, in which transactions effected between group units were indicated as the ones used to the greatest extent.