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Andrzej Piosik and Marzena Strojek-Filus

Abstract

The study contains an overview of earnings management tools of reporting entities and capital groups in Poland. Relations between the phenomenon of earnings management and financial reporting policy have been analysed. A research problem related to the significance and application of particular earnings management tools as perceived by practitioners (accountants, executive board members, specialists) has been discussed. Selected tools of earnings management, usually linked with operations, are perceived to be used more intensively. The conducted analysis shows that in the opinion of the surveyed respondents the most effective instrument influencing the desired level of results presented in a financial statement is carrying out transactions under conditions which ensure the achievement of a reported goal. This applies also to capital groups, in which transactions effected between group units were indicated as the ones used to the greatest extent.

Open access

Ewa Wanda Maruszewska, Marzena Strojek-Filus and Zita Drábková

Abstract

The article stresses the consequences of simplifications implemented in the measurement process of goods produced that are of crucial importance to production engineers in SME. The authors show the variety of possibilities that might be used by financial employees together with probable outputs in terms of valuation distortions. Using the case study the authors emphasis the importance of close cooperation of production engineers with finance professionals as out-puts of finance departments consist an important input for decision-making process of production managers. Further-more, demonstrated deficiencies in terms of methods applicable in financial reporting for measurement of the value of goods produced indicate the need for incorporation more financial and non-financial data in the process of judgments about the final cost of goods produced as simplifications applied in SME distort financial information provided to production engineers.