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  • Author: Martyna Kozłowska x
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Introduction: Dyskinesia is a symptom complex in the form of involuntary, repetitive movements of lips, lower jaw, tongue, less often the trunk and limbs. Despite the use of newer drugs in treatment neuroleptics, dyskinesia has not ceased to be a clinical problem.

Method: The work is based on a research review for which the Google Scholar database was used as well PubMed. The search range was limited to 2008-2020. We have included descriptive publications tardive dyskinesia only as a consequence of antipsychotic medications.

Material: We present the use of tetrabenazine analogues, deep brain stimulation, neuroleptics, benzodiazepines and botulinum toxin in late-suffering patients drug-induced dyskinesias, which may indicate an improvement in your health.

Discussion: The first method of treating tardive dyskinesia are withdrawal antipsychotic medications, but for many patients this is impossible. Valbenazine and Deep Brain Stimulation are the most effective in treating Tardive Dyskinesia.

Conclusions: There are not enough studies with the highest reliability to create unequivocal recommendations in the treatment of drug-induced tardive dyskinesia.


Introduction: Deep Brain Stimulation can directly alter brain activity in a controlled manner and the effect is reversible. The mechanism is that the electrode acts locally on neural activity, which is transferred to monosynchronous and multisynaptic network connections.

Methods: We present studies conducted on a group of patients that show an improvement in mental state after Deep Brain Stimulation.

Material: The diseases we included in our work are: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Eating Disorder, Depression and Bipolar Affective Disorder.

Discussion: The use of deep brain stimulation can inhibit development of acute state of patients and improve both psychiatric features and the time of remission. The results indicate the greatest effectiveness of Deep Brain Stimulation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders.

Conclusions: Brain stimulation may be a promising therapeutic target in mental illness. In a properly selected location, it can contribute to a significant clinical improvement however further research in this direction is necessary.


The aim of this study was to track the changes in blood parameters of mid-lactation multiparous Polish Holstein-Friesian cows in response to a diet supplemented with a mixture of fish-soybean oils blend and tannin-containing lingonberry shrub (Vaccinium vitis idaea; VVI) extract. Twelve lactating cows were randomly assigned to a crossover design of two treatments (6 cows per treatment) which consisted of a control diet containing no supplement (CON) and CON supplemented with a mixture of 99 g of VVI leaves extract and 660 g of blended fish-soybean oils (MIX) daily. The obtained results showed a significant increase in plasma glucose level, as well as C18:1t11 and n-3 fatty acids proportion. A significant decrease was also observed in insulin concentration, triglyceride and C18:0 proportion. Generally, the saturated fatty acid proportion decreased while the unsaturated fatty acid significantly increased with the MIX diet. In conclusion, using supplements of a mixture of VVI extract and fish-soybean oils blend modulated the unsaturated fatty acid proportion in blood, without affecting the dairy cows’ blood parameters which were all within the normal ranges.