Topographic Exposure and its Practical Applications
Topographic exposure is a topographic characteristic representing a degree of protection by a surrounding topography of a certain site. Detailed knowledge of topographic exposure has broad use in a number of applications ranging from studying forest wind damage through research on snow storage dynamics to optimisation in positioning wind power stations. This paper describes a method for creation of topographic exposure on the basis of a digital elevation model (DEM) using GIS. In combination with other climatic data on wind direction and speed, this factor is used to define the degree of terrain ventilation. Low terrain ventilation has, among other things, a significant influence on the creation of valley inversions and related vegetation zoning inversions. By combining the degree of terrain ventilation with DEM and forest vegetation zones in the area of the Training Forest Enterprise Křtiny, a clear relationship between the influence of topographic exposure, or terrain ventilation, and the creation of the vegetation zoning inversion was determined.
The post-industrial landscape (PIL) is a generally accepted phenomenon of the present world. Its features are fossil in comparison to those ones in operating industrial landscapes. The required knowledge about the position, size, shape and type of PIL will help decision makers plan PIL future. The paper deals with the selection of identification features of PILs. Applicable data must be related to four landscape structures: natural, economic (land use), social (human) and spiritual. Present Czech geodatabases contain sufficient quantity and quality of data they can be interpreted as source of PIL identification criteria. GIS technology was applied for such data collection, geometric and format pre-processing, thematic reclassification and final processing. Using selected identification and classification criteria, 105 PILs were identified on the Territory of Czech Republic and classified into individual types. A SWOT analysis of results was carried out to identify the reliability level of data and the data processing. The identified PILs represent the primary results generally obtained in the Czech Republic. GIS approach allows repeated procedures elsewhere in EU member states because of some similarity of available geodatabases. Of course, an improvement of classification procedure depends on the real situation in each country.
Geoinformation Analysis of Factors Affecting Wind Damage in the Šumava National Park
This project forms part of the "Remotely Accessed Decision Support System for Transnational Environmental Risk Management" (STRiM) project undertaken within the framework of the European Union's INTERREG IIIB CADSES programme. The test took place in a 70 km2 test area within the western part of the Šumava National Park. It is commonly known that windthrow occurs frequently in the Šumava Mountains, and it tends to occur in particular areas. The intensity of windstorms and the amount of damage caused appear to be relatively constant. In the case of Šumava, such meteorological hazards frequently become biotic hazards as they are often followed by bark beetle infestations. We hypothesise that, in particular areas, the incidence of windthrow, the amount of harm done, and the cost of alleviating that damage are in close relationship with natural factors prevalent in the area and with previous human intervention (forestry) in the landscape. Analysis of such factors, and a comparison with actual data on windthrow, showed that a) the most damaged stands were generally found on gently sloping sites of 8-15 degrees; b) the leeward side of elevations were more heavily damaged; c) non-natural forest stands were subject to more damage; d) damage increased with increasing stand density; e) middle-aged stands of around 12 years were at greatest risk; and f) the most damaged portions of the test area were located at sites with normally drained and deep soils. Further, landscape relief and active surface character appeared to play an important role in modifying wind speed and direction, thereby increasing the wind's devastating power.
Vascular Plants Distribution as a Tool for Adaptive Forest Management of Floodplain Forests in the Dyje River Basin
The study is based on a full floristic inventory of floodplain forests in South Moravia along the upper part of the Dyje River (Forest district Valtice). The study area is located in the Dolní Morava Biosphere Reserve and includes several Sites of Community Importance within Natura 2000. The aim of the inventory was to analyze diversity of herb and woody species occuring in the study area, including both native protected and threatened species, and invasive species. The study area was divided into segments. A segment represented the smallest unit of spatial forest division - "forest stand part". The species were recorded into a special scratch-list. Altogether, 656 plant species were found. The floristic database has been integrated with GIS. Maps of distribution of selected plant species or groups of plants were produced. On the basis of geographical visualization of the above mentioned results we identified areas with a high diversity of all species and endangered species. The results may be used as a base for adaptive forest and environmental management.
The post-industrial landscapes represent a legacy of the industrial revolution. There have been gradually formed numerous enterprises of various industry branches on the territory between Czech-Polish border in the North and Moravian-Silesian Beskydes Mts. (a part of Carpathians) in the South (the western border follows the foothills of Hercynian Bohemian Highlands). In the given study, there are demonstrated examples of the post-industrial landscape in the concerned area of Ostrava, which is a part of the so called Upper Silesian industrial corridor that is intensively linking industrialized region of Upper Silesia in Poland and the Czech Republic with other developed regions of Europe to southwest through the Moravian Gate to the Danube region. This paper demonstrates the procedure for defining the post-industrial landscapes in general, their classification and standardization using the available data sources and GIS technology. For the processing the data of the deployment of brownfields, contaminated sites, industrial constructions of architectural heritage, mining points and areas, human made landforms, industrial and landfill sites etc. were used. They document the genesis, the territorial shape and the geographic position of the post-industrial landscape in the study region. In the concerned area of Ostrava four “rural” post-industrial landscapes were identified and classified into three different genetic types. This paper also presents a methodology for identifying, mapping and classification of post-industrial landscapes on the basis of publicly available and state-managed databases.
This paper presents an evaluation of full-area floristic mapping of floodplain forest in Tvrdonice forest district (Židlochovice Forest Enterprise) based on a single forest stand inventory. The study area encompasses 2,200 ha of forests, where 769 segments were inventoried, and 46,886 single records about presence of vascular plant species were catalogued. We found 612 species (incl. subspecies and hybrids), out of which 514 were herbs, 98 were woody plants, 113 were endangered species and 170 were adventive species. The average area of a segment is 2.86 ha. The mean number of species per segment is 60.97 in a range of 4-151.