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Open access

Božena Šoltysová and Martin Danilovič

Tillage in Relation to Distribution of Nutrients and Organic Carbon in the Soil

Changes of total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and soil organic carbon were observed on gleyic Fluvisols (locality Milhostov) at the following crops: grain maize (2005), spring barley (2006), winter wheat (2007), soya (2008), grain maize (2009). The experiment was realized at three soil tillage technologies: conventional tillage, reduced tillage and no-tillage. Soil samples were collected from three depths (0-0.15 m; 0.15-0.30 m; 0.30-0.45 m). The ratio of soil organic carbon to total nitrogen was also calculated.

Soil tillage affects significantly the content of total nitrogen in soil. The difference between the convetional tillage and soil protective tillages was significant. The balance showed that the content of total nitrogen decreased at reduced tillage by 5.2 rel.%, at no-tillage by 5.1 rel.% and at conventional tillage by 0.7 rel.%.

Similarly, the content of organic matter in the soil was significantly affected by soil tillage. The content of soil organic carbon found at the end of the research period was lower by 4.1 rel.% at reduced tillage, by 4.8 rel.% at no-tillage and by 4.9 rel.% at conventional tillage compared with initial stage. The difference between the convetional tillage and soil protective tillages was significant.

Less significant relationship was found between the soil tillage and the content of available phosphorus. The balance showed that the content of available phosphorus was increased at reduced tillage (by 4.1 rel.%) and was decreased at no-tillage (by 9.5 rel.%) and at conventional tillage (by 3.3 rel.%).

Tillage did not significantly affect the content of available potassium in the soil.

Open access

Martin Danilovič, Helena Hlavatá and Božena Šoltysová

Abstract

The paper describes the procedure of calculation and assessment of deviations of the average air temperature from the normal (in relation to the normal 1961‒1990) or long-term average and the percentage of normal precipitation or long-term sum of precipitation, valid for the Slovak Republic. Three evaluation tables clearly indicate both threshold limit values, which facilitate the classification of the calculated indices for air temperature and precipitation. Criteria presented in this work are fully applicable for weather conditions evaluation during the growing season of cultivated plants in the Slovak Republic.

Open access

Božena Š Šoltysová and Martin Danilovič

Abstract

The changes of selected chemical parameters were observed in Gleyic Fluvisols. The field experiment was established as a twofactor experiment with four energy crops (Arundo donax L., Miscanthus × giganteus, Elymus elongatus Gaertner, Sida hermafrodita) and two variants of fertilization (nitrogen fertilization in rate 60 kg ha-1, without nitrogen fertilization). Soil samples were taken from the depth of 0 to 0.3 m at the beginning of the experiment in the autumn 2012 and at the end of reference period in the autumn 2015. Land management conversion from market crops to perennial energy crops cultivation has influenced changes of selected soil chemical parameters. The contents of soil organic carbon were affected by cultivated energy crops differently. It was found out that Arundo increased the organic carbon content and Miscanthus, Elymus and Sida decreased its content. At the same time, the same impact of the crops on content of available phosphorus and potassium and soil reaction was found. It was recorded that each cultivated crop decreased the soil reaction and available phosphorus content and increased the content of available potassium.

Open access

Božena Šoltysová, Ján Hecl, Ladislav Kováč and Martin Danilovič

Abstract

Three plots in Dry Polder Beša in Slovakia (E) and 3 plots in no flooded area (R) were chosen to assess the Cd, Pb and Ni contamination in the soil by using geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and anthropogenic contribution rate (ACR). Heavy metals content was measured at three depths (0‒0.2 m, 0.2‒0.4 m and 0.4‒0.6 m). It was found that the average content of Pb was 1.4 times higher and content of Ni 2.3 times higher at experimental area than at reference area. The average content of Cd were on the same level (E - 0.040 mg/kg, R - 0.041 mg/kg). The variability of heavy metals content in the soil was significantly influenced by soil depth and sampling plot and concentrations significantly correlated with soil organic carbon content (r - in the range of 0.41 to 0.65, p < 0.05). Geo-accumulation index indicates that the soils in the all of studied plots were polluted with respect to Ni, while were unpolluted with respect to Cd and Pb. Cd and Pb occurrence in these soils may be associated to the geochemical weathering. The value of the ACR indicate that anthropogenic input of Ni was 1.331 times higher in flooded area than in reference no flooded area. Different soil types can be arranged in descending Igeo values for Ni as follows: Luvisols ˃ Regosols ˃ Gleysols ˃ Chernozems. It was found that the content of Ni and Pb exceeded the critical values, in relation to transfer of contaminants from the soil to the plant , only at flooded area.