Background: Identification of the characteristics of tooth agenesis is an important component in the understanding of the ethiology of this common developmental dental anomaly. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and the characteristics of tooth agenesis among patients from Tîrgu Mureș. Material and method: The present study is retrospective and descriptive, based on the evaluation of the patient’s dental records from 2004 to 2012 belonging to a pediatric dental office from Tîrgu Mureș. Orthopantomograms and anamnestic data of 947 children and young adults (365 male and 582 female) were analyzed. Results: The prevalence of tooth agenesis, excluding third molars, was 7.39%. The difference between the genders was statistically not significant (p = 0.09). The most frequently missing teeth were the upper second incisors, followed by the lower second premolars. The difference between the distribution of agenesis in the upper and lower jaws was statistically significant (p <0.0001). The distribution of dental agenesis between the anterior region and the lateral region of the maxilla and the mandible showed significant differences (p <0.0001). Symmetrical distribution of tooth agenesis was found more frequently (54.54%) than assymetrical distribution. Conclusions: The maxillary anterior region and the mandibular lateral region were the most affected by dental agenesis in the permanent dentition of the studied population. The maxilla was more affected than the mandible and bilateral forms of agenesis were more frequently than unilateral forms. The more extreme forms of agenesis were found amongst female
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the state of oral health and the self-perception of children regarding their oro-dental status, their knowledge and attitude towards oral health. Methods: A sample of 130 children (11-14 years) and one of their parents were asked to complete a Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) in Sfântu Gheorghe, Romania. From these, 69 children were examined and data was recorded about Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth (DMFT), oral hygiene, dental malposition and malocclusion, Aesthetic Component of Index of Treatment Need (AC-IOTN). Consent of the parents was obtained. Statistical analyses were performed. Results: The optimal score of CPQ evaluation is 96 and the maximum score achieved was 93, the minimum was 43. 78.10 average score can be graded as medium. As the data points out, most of the children and their parents have a medium knowledge and self-perception. The clinical examination underline the main problems: dental caries (62%), occlusal coloration (23%), dental malposition (17%), rooftop deep bite (14%), dental rotation and crowding (12%), dental plaque and tartar (10%). As far as the AC-IOTN is concerned, 48 of 69 children have no need for treatment, 18 have a high need for treatment, and 3 have a moderate need for treatment. Conclusions: Overall, the children and their parents have a poor oral health knowledge, which is reflected in the medium level of the achieved CPQ scores, in the clinical examination and can be associated with high levels of dental caries and malocclusion
Background: Dental age assessment is very useful in the pediatric dentist’s and orthodontist’s everyday practice. The eventual lack of correlation between dental age, skeletal maturation and chronological age can influence treatment procedures regarding mostly their application time. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between dental age based on the calcification stages of the first lower premolar (PM1i) and skeletal maturity stages using cervical vertebrae (C2, C3, C4) among Romanian individuals and to determine the clinical value of the first premolar as a growth evaluation index. Material and methods: In a sample of 30 patients (13 males, 17 females) ranging in age from 9 to 15 years (mean age 11.2 years) we examined the orthopantomography radiographs (OPT) and lateral cephalometric radiographs of each case. Results: The biological development of girls is about 1.5 years more advanced than in boys. When the Demirjian Index was at stage F, then CVS was at stage 3.4, which means that in developmental stage “F” (according to Demirjian index) premolars are indicators of the optimal time for orthodontic treatment. We found a significant correlation (R = 0.871, p <0.001) between CVM and Demirjian's index. Conclusions: The correlation shown in this study will allow clinicians to use mandibular first premolar as an adjunctive tool to assess adolescent growth spurt, combined with the evaluation of the cervical vertebrae. The results also show the usefulness of the assessment of the development of dental status as a simple diagnostic test to determine the biological age of the population
Aims The objectives of the present survey were: 1) a systematic epidemiological investigation of dental fear and anxiety among children living in the central part of Romania and 2) to identify the most fearful aspects of dental care perceived by these children.
Methods In this cross-sectional study 406 schoolchildren, 170 males and 263 females, aged 11-18 yearsfrom two cities, Tirgu Mureş and Sfintu Gheorghe were assessed. The subjects’ dental fear was evaluated with the Romanian versions of Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) and Kleinknecht’s Dental Fear Survey (DFS), the anxiety level with Spielberger`s State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S, STAI-T) and their opinion about dentists with Getz’s Dental Beliefs Scale (DBS). Questionnaires were completed anonymously at school. The study was approved by theResearch Ethics Committeeof the University of Medicine and Pharmacy Tirgu Mureş. For statistical analysis t-test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation test were used by SPSS/PC statistics v. 17.0.
Results The mean (±SD) scores of the surveyed subjects (mean age 15.69±2.06 years) were high: MDAS 10.65 (±4.5), DFS 38.68 (±15.1), DBS 36.93 (±11.9), STAI-S 37.90 (±10.9) and STAI-T 41.04 (±9.9), respectively. There was a strong positive Pearson-correlation between MDAS and DFS scores (r=0.73; p≤0.01) and a somewhat lower correlation between these scales and the general anxiety scores. Except for DBS, statistically significantly higher scores were found in females for every questionnaire (t-test, p≤0.05). The 11-year-old group presented the lowest scores in every case, while the peak was around 14 years. Age was a statistically significant factor only in case of DBS, STAI-S and STAI-T (one-way ANOVA, p<0.05). Drilling and injection were considered the most fearful moments of a dental treatment. Subjects claimed dental practitioners working under time pressure and communication deficiencies.
Conclusions Having their special features, our findings were consistent with the local and international data. The subjects claim lack of time and communication deficiencies with the dentists. Identifying the reasons of dental fear and anxiety, might lead to solutions of avoidance or control.
Background: Previous studies regarding various types of malocclusions have found correlations between the angle of the base of the skull and prognathism. Aim of the study: This cephalometric study sought to investigate the function of the cranium base angle in different types of malocclusion on a group of Romanian subjects. Materials and methods: Forty-four cephalometric radiographs were selected from patients referred to orthodontic treatment. The cephalometric records were digitized, and with the CorelDRAW Graphics Suite X5 software 22 landmarks have been marked on each radiograph. A number of linear and angular variables were calculated. Results: The angle of the base of the skull was found to be higher in Class II Division 1 subjects compared to the Class I group. The cranial base lengths, N-S and S-Ba, were significantly larger in both categories of Class II malocclusion than in Class I patients, but measurements were comparable in Class I and Class III. The SNA angle showed no considerable variation between Class I subjects and the other groups. SNA-SNP was significantly increased above Class I values in Class II Division1 and Class II Division 2 groups. No significant dissimilarities were observed for these lengths between Class I and Class III patients. Conclusions: The angle of the cranium base (S-N-Ba, S-N-Ar) does not have a major role in the progression of malocclusion. In Angle Class II malocclusion the SNA angle is increased, and SNB is increased in malocclusion Class III. The anterior skull base length is increased in Class II anomalies. The length of the maxillary bone base is increased in Class II malocclusions type; in Class III type of malocclusion the length of the mandible bone is increased.
Bacterial plaque has the primary etiologic role in triggering the pathological changes of periodontal disease. A major goal of periodontal therapy is supraand subgingival bacterial flora reduction through scaling and root planning, through local and general antimicrobial treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the mechanical treatment of scaling and root planning in reducing or suppressing bacterial species from the periodontal pockets. In order to conduct this study we collected and analyzed subgingival plaque samples taken from the 50 periodontal pockets with a depth of about 5mm, from 50 subjects with diagnosis of generalized chronic periodontitis, before and after scaling and root planning. The usage of API 20A test allows a quick and easy identification of anaerobic bacteria based on biochemical properties. Additional complementary tests were used, such as examining the culture and the morpho-tinctorial features to confirm and complete the identification. The microbial flora that we were able to isolate from the periodontal pockets before scaling and root planning was very rich. After scaling and root planning the subjects showed clinical improvement in the periodontal status, and the microbiological analysis of the periodontal pockets mostly showed a quantitative and qualitative reduction of bacterial species. A local or general antimicrobial treatment is recommended to assure improved effectiveness because mechanical treatment alone cannot completely suppress bacterial flora.
Background: Measurement-based studies are prone to measurement errors, which occur at the same operator or between different operators during repeated measurements of the same sample.
Aim of the study: To assess the inter-operator reliability of morphometric measurements using a bidimensional image analysis method.
Material and methods: Eight study models have been selected, images of teeth and models were taken from vestibular and occlusal view. The following parameters were measured individually by three, previously trained operators: mesio-distal, occluso-gingival, and vestibulo-oral dimensions, vestibular and occlusal area, depth of palatal arch, arch breadth, arch circumference, and arch length. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for each measurement.
Results: The reliability of the measurements showed high degrees, all values being higher than 0.8.
Conclusions: Dental morphometric measurements done by 2D image analysis can be performed by multiple operators with an excellent reliability.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer that most frequently affects children, and its treatment involves intensive chemotherapy, which might interfere with the normal development of dental tissues. The aim of our study was to measure the incidence of dental caries and enamel hypoplasia in children diagnosed with ALL treated according to the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster-95 (ALL-BFM-95) protocol during the complete remission phase. Two groups of children between 8-12 years of age were investigated: Group 1 consisted of 36 children with ALL, and Group 2 of 58 control age-matched children. The decay-missing-filling index for the deciduous teeth (DMFT) and the presence of hypoplasia in the first permanent molars (MH) or in both incisors and molars (MIH) were recorded. The results were statistically analyzed and showed that there were no differences between the groups regarding the DMFT values (p >0.05), but there was a statistically significant difference in the incidence of MH and MIH between groups (p <0.05). According to our results, chemotherapy was not responsible for the decay process, as there were no differences in DMFT indices between the groups, but the high incidence of MH and MIH in the ALL group indicates the need of a good dental care for these children in order to prevent future dental complications.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra-operator reliability of a 2D image analysis method for tooth dimension measurements.
Methods: Occlusal and vestibular surfaces of teeth from ten study models were captured with a digital camera. Images were transferred on a computer and different tooth dimensions (mesio-distal, occluso-gingival, vestibulo-oral and perimeter) were measured using the Image Pro Insight software. Measurements were repeated after two weeks. Fleiss' coefficients of reliability were calculated.
Results: A high degree of reliability has been established for every type of measurement: all coefficient values of reliability being not less than 0.95.
Conclusions: The 2D image analyzing system is an adequate alternative for measuring tooth dimensions. All measurements were in the excellent category of reliability. The method allows precise and repeatable measurements, generating an image database as well, available for future studies.