Grażyna J. Iwanowicz-Palus, Marta Zarajczyk, Aleksandra Jakubowska, Agnieszka Bień and Ewa Rzońca
Introduction. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic disorder happening to pregnant women. Some. 3-5% of all pregnant women in Poland are diagnosed with the condition. Glucose tolerance disorders or gestational diabetes recur in about 30% of women during their second (or next) pregnancy. Controlling diabetes involves many new responsibilities and sacrifices that may be difficult to bear for a pregnant woman.
Aim. The aim of the present study was to examine the most common problems among pregnant women with gestational diabetes
Material and methods. The study was conducted between 2015 and 2016. The authors used a diagnostic survey on 120 pregnant women with diabetes who were patients in gestational pathology and conservative gynecological treatment departments and diabetic outpatient clinics in Lublin. The χ2 test of independence was used to examine correlations between socio-demographic factors and problems experienced by pregnant women with gestational diabetes. Results. Problems with keeping a blood glucose monitoring diary were reported by women from cities different than province capitals (75%). Childless women reported problems with pricking their finger multiple times a day (60%). Insulin injections were perceived as a GDM-related problem mostly by women aged 31-35 (41.2%), women in their second pregnancy (61.8%) and women with more than one child (47.1%). Frequent visits to the doctor were perceived as a problem mostly by women aged less than 26 (42.3%), women living in rural areas (57.7%), women with higher education (84.6%), women in their first pregnancy (61.5%) and women without children (73.1%). The two last groups additionally indicated psychological burden (84.2% and 78.9%, respectively). Anxiety about the occurrence of type 2 diabetes was mainly expressed by women aged 26-30 (35.3%) and those in their second pregnancy (52.9%), whilst working women expressed concern for their own lives (78.6%).
Conclusions. There is a correlation between selected problems experienced by pregnant women with GDM and socio-demographic variables such as: age, place of residence, education, professional activity and number of pregnancies and children. The results obtained suggest that there is a need for educating women about the most frequent problems that accompany pregnancy with GDM.
Agnieszka Bień, Kozak2 Rzońca, Marta Zarajczyk, Grażyna J. Iwanowicz-Palus and Agnieszka Kozak
Introduction. Breastfeeding is the optimal method of nourishing newborns and infants, as provided in guidelines and recommendations issued by both maternal and child health organizations and associations. For this reason, breastfeeding should be promoted and supported through educating the population. Various media outlets (television, radio, the Internet, press) have become an integral part of people’s daily life and an important source of information on health.
Aim. The present study aimed at determining the role of the mass media in the promotion of breastfeeding.
Material and methods. The study was conducted between January and April 2015 on 262 women. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The researchers used a self-designed questionnaire. The software used for databases and statistical analysis was STATISTICA 9.1 (StatSoft, Poland).
Results. A statistical analysis has shown that married women (p=0.00168), women with higher education (p=0.04007), women who had their own businesses (p=0.04482) and those who had given birth to one child (p=0.00093) stated that information on breastfeeding was available in the media. The women surveyed pointed to the media (56.13%) as the source of information on breastfeeding, while the Internet (82.07%) was the most popular medium used by the respondents to look for information on breastfeeding. The participants believed that the media should focus on promoting the benefits of breastfeeding for the child (94.27%).
Conclusions. The media are the most popular source of information on breastfeeding. The media should promote breastfeeding mainly through providing information on the benefits for the child. The Internet is the most popular medium to look for information on breastfeeding.
Justyna Krysa, Grażyna J. Iwanowicz-Palus, Agnieszka M. Bień, Ewa Rzońca and Marta Zarajczyk
Prenatal education in the form of antenatal classes, referred to as School of Birth in Poland, aims at preparing both pregnant women and their partners for parenthood, on theoretical and practical basis. This is achieved by providing women with information on safe pregnancy, labor and puerperium, developing healthy behaviors and preparing parents to look after the newborn/infant. The course program covers all psychophysical issues related to pregnancy, labor, puerperium and early stages of the child’s life. The objective is to strengthen the health of mothers and children, alleviate pregnancy-related anxiety and fear, decrease the number of premature births and reduce the perinatal mortality rate. However, the scope of potential advantages of Schools of Birth depends not only on individual traits of the participants, but also on the engagement of professionals who teach the courses and the type of the school.
Agnieszka Skurzak, Marta Zarajczyk, Grażyna Iwanowicz-Palus, Magdalena Korżyńska-Piętas, Magdalena Lewicka and Henryk Wiktor
Introduction. Satisfaction with life is a general assessment of satisfaction with one’s own achievements and living conditions on many levels. This includes human cognitive processes, expressing the emotional state that occurs as a result of achieving a specific goal. According to Juczyński, the assessment of life satisfaction is the result of confronting one’s own situation with the adopted criteria. If the result of the comparison is positive, the implication is the feeling of satisfaction. Satisfaction with life of pregnant women is dependent on many factors, including: personality traits, emotions, sociodemographic, factors as well as numerous physiological and psychological changes occurring during pregnancy.
Aim. The aim of the study is to assess the level of life satisfaction of pregnant women depending on sociodemographic factors.
Material and methods. The research was conducted on 415 women hospitalized and receiving care in counseling centers for pregnant women. The research was carried out by means of a diagnostic survey using a standardized Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and an original questionnaire to collect demographic data.
Results. Based on the average assessment of life satisfaction, it was found that 48.43% (n = 201) of the surveyed pregnant women was characterized by a high degree of life satisfaction, 35.18% (n = 146) average, and 16.39% (n = 68) of the respondents experienced a low level of life satisfaction.
Conclusions. Sociodemographic factors conditioned the feeling of satisfaction with life of pregnant women. Pregnant women who had a greater sense of life satisfaction were: those in relationship rather than those who were single; women with higher education than those with basic, vocational or secondary education; pregnant women working mentally rather than those not working.