This article focuses on the effects of corrections to the budgetary policy in eurozone economies. The goal of the text is to check if advancement in implementing modern tools of public management is helpful in the time of fiscal adjustment. We assume that the most important role of a performance approach in conducting fiscal policy is the ability of government to implement active policy meant as structural changes in the composition of public expenditures. In the case of the need to cut general levels of public spending, public sector managers who have knowledge of performance effects of public policies should be able to conduct fiscal adjustment in such a way as to minimise negative outcomes of spending correction on society. The structure of the text is as follows. First, we present some insights on the economic effects of fiscal adjustment. Then, we discuss the concept of performance management presented in the theory and policy agendas of international institutions such as the European Union or the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). Finally, we present the result of an empirical exercise that is designed to combine the level of advancement in implementing performance budgeting (PB) and the social cost of fiscal adjustment in eurozone economies. The most important finding of the research is that PB tools seem to have very limited usefulness in a time of fiscal adjustment. There is no statistical evidence that countries advanced in utilisation of PB tools conduct more active fiscal policy – approach of cutting all expenditures across the border by given percentage rather than looking at priorities and social outcomes of fiscal adjustment dominates in all cases.
Purpose: Respective European Union member states′ interest in using spending reviews varies as there are no international mandatory regulations. The EU legislation contains general indications as to maintaining a rational fiscal policy, from the provisions of the TFUE, expanded in the Pact for Stability and Growth, and elaborated in 2011. Methodology: Adopting an interpretative research approach, this article elaborates a multiple explanatory case study design to discover how existing theories about public spending reviews are conceptualized by practitioners in their natural contexts. Findings: The deteriorated state of many countries′ public finances, as a result of the global financial crisis, has increased the interest in advanced innovative consolidation and fiscal stabilization methods. Spending reviews are among the most developed and advanced methods. Such reviews were conducted both by countries that had applied this instrument before (Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom, Australia), and by those that introduced them for the first time (Ireland, Canada, France). However, reviews are applied in countries characterized by significant economic advancement and mature public management systems. Originality: This article analyses and draws conclusions from several selected countries′ experience to date in using spending reviews. The budget functions are compared using information from the implementation of the spending reviews. This article contributes to filling two main gaps identified in the literature review.
Purpose: The paper discusses the validity of the thesis according to which Polish budgetary framework in place in 2011 required only minor adjustments in order to be consistent with the principles set forth in the EU Council Directive on requirements for budgetary frameworks of Member States adopted in November 2011. Basic elements of the budgetary framework laid down in the Directive had already been provided for in Polish law.
Methodology: A comparative analysis of the provisions of the Directive with relevant acts of Polish legislation, including the Public Finance Act, was carried out. The author outlines the Polish budgetary framework before 2011 and the most important adjustments introduced by the end of 2013 on the basis of the budgetary framework structure set forth in the Directive.
Findings: The assessment of the convergence of provisions encompassed definitions, accounting, statistics, forecasts, numerical fiscal rules, medium-term budgetary frameworks, transparency and consistency. Its results demonstrate that Polish regulations complied with the provisions of the Directive. In order to confirm their correctness, an assessment of the practical application of recent adjustments, which entered into force in 2014, must be carried out.
Constraints to research: The analysis addresses the main concepts and their most important characteristics, and therefore a synthetic approach to the subject required omitting a number of specific issues.
Originality: The paper analyses the convergence of the Polish budgetary framework in 2011 and its subsequent adjustments to the provisions of the Directive of the EU Council requiring Member States to amend their legislation by the end of 2013.
Purpose: The article analyzes the possible methods of public debt management, which not only aim to meet regulatory requirements but also obtain a market premium in the form of an optimal level of the yield on government bond yields that will be profitable for the issuer. The study analyzes the situation in the public finance sector in the countries that form the Visegrád Group (V4). The authors evaluate the main regulatory requirements of EU law in the area of numerical fiscal rules and their impact on the yield on basic securities such as ten-year government bonds, which directly influences the cost of servicing long-term public debt.
Methodology: The study uses desk research method for theoretical reasoning to verify the research hypothesis. The study seeks to answer the question of whether the application of national and EU fiscal rules in V4 budgetary frameworks contributes to lower yields on ten-year bonds and thereby reduces the cost of public debt. The authors utilize time series and cause-effect analysis as well as quantitative research for the systematization of statistical information and regression analysis for the examination of statistical dependencies.
Findings: The basic parameters subject to financial assessment within the fiscal rules index are (1) the deficit of public finance sector and (2) public debt with its servicing costs. In 2005–2016, the ratio of the public finance sector deficit to GDP was shaped in such a way that most V4 countries required the institution of excessive deficit procedures and further disciplinary regulations. The assessment of the situation in the public finance sector in the area of budget deficit and public debt does not translate into the yield on government bonds of non-Eurozone countries. Model-based testing indicates that the financial markets – when deciding to evaluate or purchase government bonds of non-Eurozone countries – failed to acknowledge the implementation of fiscal rules in these countries and its possible effects.
Originality: The study focuses on a unique comprehensive analysis of national fiscal rules employed in individual V4 countries and their impact on the yield on government bonds throughout the entire EU membership of the V4. What holds the greatest cognitive value in this article is the answer to the question of whether Eurozone membership impacts the valuation of a country’s public debt.