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  • Author: Marta Adamczyk x
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Background and objectives: To justify the concept of validating conformal versus intensity-modulated approach in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and methods: For 10 patients representative of the spectrum of tumour sizes and locations, two plans were prepared: one with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) technique and the other with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique. Preliminary measurements were performed in static conditions. For each of the field angles considered, the motion kernel was generated to simulate tumour motion trajectories, with the largest amplitude in the cranio-caudal direction of 4, 6, and 8 mm. The measurement results determined the agreement between the planned and measured doses. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between the motion patterns, with the smallest amplitudes for clinical target volume in 3DCRT. For IMRT, the significant differences between 0 mm vs. 6 mm and 0 mm vs. 8 mm amplitudes were found. The motion impact on delivered vs. planned doses had less effect on the oesophagus in 3DCRT compared to that in IMRT. The observed differences were comparable for the heart. Interpretation and conclusions: For maximal amplitudes below 4 mm, the disagreement between planned and delivered doses can be neglected. However, the amplitudes above 5 mm and 7 mm lead to significant changes in IMRT and 3DCRT dose distribution, respectively.


Within the last twenty years studies have been conducted at many research centers with the aim of dividing breeding materials into heterotic groups based on molecular markers. Molecular techniques make it possible to study the genetic purity of inbred lines, determine their genetic variability and classify breeding materials for which no information is available on their origin. This study aims to investigate relationships between coefficients of relatedness (pedigree analysis) and molecular similarity estimated on the basis of AFLP and RAPD molecular markers, between parental forms of F1 maize hybrids. Determination of these relationships will make it possible to establish a hierarchy of importance for applied methods concerning selection of parental components for heterotic crossings based on the degree of relatedness and genetic similarity. As a result of the experiment it was shown that in the case of incomplete pedigree information, in the selection of parental components for crossings we may use information concerning molecular similarity determined using AFLP markers and the Jaccard index, which to the least degree differentiates matrices of AFLP and RAPD molecular similarity.


Study aim: The objective of the study was to reveal the functional limits of the motor system in women practising combat sports and team sports.

Material and methods: 102 women (mean age 25.2 years, body mass 62.2 kg, body height 168.3 cm) practising competitive ITF (International Taekwon-Do Federation) taekwon-do (n = 22), Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) (n = 15), football (n = 35) and basketball (n = 30) participated in the study. The assessment tool was the FMS test, comprising 7 movement patterns scored on a scale of 0–3.

Results: The studied female athletes earned medium scores. Women practising combat sports scored generally higher in the FMS test, although the difference was not significant (combat sports – mean value 15.57 ± 2.39, team sports – mean value 14.72 ± 1.93, difference – p = 0.07). Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in the second (hurdle step) and the fifth pattern (active straight leg raise – ASLR). The aggregated FMS results of female taekwon-do (15.77) and BJJ athletes (15.22) were similar. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in one pattern (ASLR). Women practising football (14.77) and basketball (14.67) attained a similar level of results in the test. Statistically significant differences were noted in two trials: footballers scored higher in the ASLR task (p < 0.05), and basketball players scored higher in rotary stability (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: A statistically significant result in the FMS test was obtained by martial arts athletes, which may point to a higher level of functional movement, which may be a result of more universal training.


The project was performed within the Polish Society for Pharmacoeconomics (PTFE). The objective was to estimate the potential costs of treatment of side effects, which theoretically may occur as a result of treatment of selected diseases. We analyzed the Drug Programs financed by National Health Fund in Poland in 2012 and for the first analysis we selected those Programs where the same medicinal products were used. We based the adverse events selection on the Summary of Product Characteristics of the chosen products. We extracted all the potential adverse events defined as frequent and very frequent, grouping them according to therapeutic areas. This paper is related to the results in the pulmonology area. The events described as very common had an incidence of ≥ 1/10, and the common ones ≥ 1/100, <1/10. In order to identify the resources used, we performed a survey with the engagement of clinical experts. On the basis of the collected data we allocated direct costs incurred by the public payer. We used the costs valid in December 2013. The paper presents the estimated costs of treatment of side effects related to the pulmonology disease area. Taking into account the costs incurred by the NHF and the patient separately e calculated the total spending and the percentage of each component cost in detail. The treatment of adverse drug reactions generates a significant cost incurred by both the public payer and the patient.


Introduction. The rapid development of new radiotherapy technologies, such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or tomotherapy, has resulted in the capacity to deliver a more homogenous dose in the target. However, the higher doses associated with these techniques are a reason for concern because they may increase the dose outside the target. In the present study, we compared 3DCRT, IMRT and tomotherapy to assess the doses to organs at risk (OARs) resulting from photon beam irradiation and scattered neutrons.

Material and methods. The doses to OARs outside the target were measured in an anthropomorphic Alderson phantom using thermoluminescence detectors (TLD 100) 6Li (7.5%) and 7Li (92.5%). The neutron fluence rate [cm−2·s−1] at chosen points inside the phantom was measured with gold foils (0.5 cm diameter, mean surface density of 0.108 g/cm3).

Results. The doses [Gy] delivered to the OARs for 3DCRT, IMRT and tomotherapy respectively, were as follows: thyroid gland (0.62 ± 0.001 vs. 2.88 ± 0.004 vs. 0.58 ± 0.003); lung (0.99 ± 0.003 vs. 4.78 ± 0.006 vs. 0.67 ± 0.003); bladder (80.61 ± 0.054 vs. 53.75 ± 0.070 vs. 34.71 ± 0.059); and testes (4.38 ± 0.017 vs. 6.48 ± 0.013 vs. 4.39 ± 0.020). The neutron dose from 20 MV X-ray beam accounted for 0.5% of the therapeutic dose prescribed in the PTV. The further from the field edge the higher the contribution of this secondary radiation dose (from 8% to ~45%).

Conclusion. For tomotherapy, all OARs outside the therapeutic field are well-spared. In contrast, IMRT achieved better sparing than 3DCRT only in the bladder. The photoneutron dose from the use of high-energy X-ray beam constituted a notable portion (0.5%) of the therapeutic dose prescribed to the PTV.