Removal of copper from aqueous solution on the natural and modified clinoptilolite was studied under static conditions. Batch adsorptions of copper were performed to investigate the effects of contact time and initial metal ion concentration. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used to analyse the experimental data. The kinetic analyses of the adsorption processes were performed using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models.
Coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in the world trade, and also a central and popular part of our culture. However, coffees production generate a lot of coffee wastes and by-products, which, on the one hand, could be used for more applications (sorbent for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solutions, production of fuel pellets or briquettes, substrate for biogas, bioethanol or biodiesel production, composting material, production of reusable cups, substrat for mushroom production, source of natural phenolic antioxidants etc.), but, on the other hand, it could be a source of severe contamination posing a serious environmental problem. In this paper, we present an overview of utilising the waste from coffee production.
The presence of dyes in effluents is a major concern due to their adverse effects to many forms of life. Dyes are generally removed by conventional sorbents. This article discusses the use of adsorbents from the waste metal production (low-cost sorbents), red mud (RM) and black nickel mud (BNM), to remove methylene blue solution (MB) under different test conditions, such as time and temperature of sorption and weight of sorbent samples. From the obtained data, we can claim that the highest achieved sorption efficiency was achieved by a RM sorbent at 60 °C after 48 hours of sorption with all three weights of samples (83.01 – 83.72%).
Exploration of 209 available Material safety data sheets of 85 straight oils, 46 emulsions, 51 semi-synthetics and 27 synthetics was carried out to provide a report on the most widely used components defined as dangerous substances. As many as 217 of different substances of which 15 were identified as biocides, 17 as corrosion inhibitors or neutralizing agent, 17 were lubricity improvers and 38 different base fluids, lubricity solvents or surfactants, while 93 substances were not identified specifically and 37 substances occurred only once. This article is focused on the list of base fluids in straight oils and their possible health effects.
The exploration of 209 available Material safety data sheets of 85 straight oils, 46 emulsions, 51 semi-synthetics and 27 synthetics was carried out to provide a report on the most used components defined as dangerous substances. As many as 217 of different substances of which 15 were identified as biocides, 17 as corrosion inhibitors or neutralizing agent, 17 were lubricity improvers and 38 different base fluids, lubricity solvents or surfactants, while 93 substances were not identified specifically and 37 substances occurred only once. This article is focused on the list of biocides, neutralizing agents and corrosion inhibitors identified in all types of MWFs and their possible health effects.
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was evaluated as an easy and simple analytical method for determination of starch residues after enzymatic hydrolysis. Different starch sources were liquefaction by α-amylase enzyme Termamyl SC for 25 minutes in autoclave. In the next step were starches solutions enzymatically hydrolysed by enzyme pollulanase Promozyme® for 24 hours to 60°C water bath. Total glucose in starch hydrolysate was determined using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) with ATR accessory with diamante crystal by recording the absorption of different carbohydrate in spectral range from 700 - 4000 cm-1. Based on calibration curves of glucose the release of total glucose in hydrolysates was calculated.
The aim of this contribution is to compare two common techniques for determining the concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and phosphates in surface water and groundwater. Excess of these nutrients in water can directly affect human health (e.g. methemoglobinaemia) or indirectly through the products of secondary pollution - eutrophication (e.g. cyanotoxins, emanation of hydrogen sulphide, mercaptanes, methane...). Negative impact of nutrients excess in surface water often causes the destruction of water ecosystems, and therefore, common substances of these elements must be monitored and managed. For these experiments two spectrophotometric techniques - ultraviolet spectrophotometry and nutrient photometry were used. These techniques are commonly used for quick and simple analyses of nutrients in waste water. There are calibration curves for each nutrient and for determination of their concentration.
Utilization of AOPs (Advanced oxidation processes) as an emerging technology for removing of pollutants from wastewater is developed. In this paper, UV photodegradation was used for removing of phenol from wastewater. As a source of UV radiation medium pressure mercury lamp with output 400W was used. The influence of low-cost catalysts on this process was also monitored. Wastes from metal production, red mud and black nickel mud, were used as catalysts.
The main objective of this paper is to evaluate an efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative adsorbents. Chlorophenols are organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring, OH groups and also atoms of chlorine. Chlorophenols may have a huge isomere variety that means there are differences in their chemical and physical properties. Due to their toxicity it is necessary to remove them from waste water and in this paper an alternative way of such process is described.
The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud) and a biosorbent (Lemna minor) were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L−1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 %) was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.