Alica Bartošová, Anna Michalíková, Maroš Sirotiak and Maroš Soldán
The aim of this contribution is to compare two common techniques for determining the concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and phosphates in surface water and groundwater. Excess of these nutrients in water can directly affect human health (e.g. methemoglobinaemia) or indirectly through the products of secondary pollution - eutrophication (e.g. cyanotoxins, emanation of hydrogen sulphide, mercaptanes, methane...). Negative impact of nutrients excess in surface water often causes the destruction of water ecosystems, and therefore, common substances of these elements must be monitored and managed. For these experiments two spectrophotometric techniques - ultraviolet spectrophotometry and nutrient photometry were used. These techniques are commonly used for quick and simple analyses of nutrients in waste water. There are calibration curves for each nutrient and for determination of their concentration.
Removal of copper from aqueous solution on the natural and modified clinoptilolite was studied under static conditions. Batch adsorptions of copper were performed to investigate the effects of contact time and initial metal ion concentration. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used to analyse the experimental data. The kinetic analyses of the adsorption processes were performed using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models.
Water is one of the most important substances on earth; nowadays, its pollution is one of the main environmental problems. Textile industries pose a significant environmental problem for earth. Firstly, it is due to their huge water consumption, and secondly, they produce a lot of wastewater contaminated with dyes, chemicals, suspended solids, etc. These contaminants can make water unsuitable for the desired purposes (e.g., drinking, watering, washing and showering). The one of the promising methods for the removal of dyes from the contaminated wastewater is adsorption. In this process, we can use low cost waste materials as an adsorbent. This paper presents an overview of utilization of the spent coffee grounds for the removal of dyes from wastewater.
The paper deals with the process of thermal degradation of humic substances in soil samples exposed to increased temperature. To determine the basic properties of humic substances, humic and fulvic acids are used conventional fractionation chemical laboratory methods. To determine changes in the chemical structure, the method of use of FT-IR ATR spectroscopy technique.
Lenka Blinová, Maroš Sirotiak, Alica Bartošová and Maroš Soldán
Coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in the world trade, and also a central and popular part of our culture. However, coffees production generate a lot of coffee wastes and by-products, which, on the one hand, could be used for more applications (sorbent for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solutions, production of fuel pellets or briquettes, substrate for biogas, bioethanol or biodiesel production, composting material, production of reusable cups, substrat for mushroom production, source of natural phenolic antioxidants etc.), but, on the other hand, it could be a source of severe contamination posing a serious environmental problem. In this paper, we present an overview of utilising the waste from coffee production.
Edgar Hiller, Maroš Sirotiak, Veronika Tatarková and Ľubomír Jurkovič
Occurrence of selected organochlorine pesticide residues in surface sediments from the Velke Kozmalovce, Ruzin, and Zemplinska Sirava water reservoirs, Slovakia
Surface sediment samples from three water reservoirs of Slovakia were analyzed for selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Concentrations of total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (ΣDDTs) in the sediments from Velke Kozmalovce, Ruzin, and Zemplinska Sirava ranged from 12 to 24 ng g-1, 5 to 28 ng g-1, and 1 to 20 ng g-1, respectively, with the exception of one sediment sample from Zemplinska Sirava, having anomalously high concentration of ΣDDTs (526 ng g-1). Concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the sediments from these water reservoirs were generally lower and ranged from 0.3 to 9 ng g-1. Other organochlorine pesticides such as mirex, lindane and heptachlor were not detected in the surface sediments. Ratios of DDT/(DDE + DDD) were lower than 1.0 in majority of the sediment samples indicating that the degradation of the parent DDT occurred significantly and DDT in the sediments from the studied water reservoirs was derived mainly from the weathered agricultural soils. Moreover, ratios of DDD/DDE indicated that the parent DDT was degraded under aerobic conditions before depositing into the sediments of these water reservoirs.
The paper discussed the issue of eutrophication. The most conspicuous effect of eutrophication is the creation of dense blooms of noxious, foul-smelling phytoplankton that reduce water clarity and harm water quality. Nutrient concentration, temperature and pH of the water largely influence the growth rate and composition of duckweed in general, but it can be said that the temperature and solar irradiation are the most important factors. In order to compare the rate of biomass increase of duckweed biomass in natural conditions and in a laboratory grown sample was analysed by spectrophotometric methods in UV/VIS region (Spectrophotometer GENESYSTM) for the selected nutrients such as ammonium, ammonium nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate.
Maroš Sirotiak, Marek Lipovský and Alica Bartošová
In the research described in this paper, studied was sorption capacity of natural and ferric modification of zeolite tuff containing mineral clinoptilolite from the Nižný Hrabovec deposit to remove potentially toxic metals (ionic forms of chromium, nickel, copper and aluminium) from their water solutions. We reported that the Fe (III) zeolite has an enhanced ability to sorption of Cu (II), and a slight improvement occurs in the case of Cr (VI) and Ni (II). On the other hand, the deterioration was observed in the case of Al (III) adsorption.
The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.
Alica Bartošová, Maroš Soldán, Maroš Sirotiak, Lenka Blinová and Anna Michaliková
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was evaluated as an easy and simple analytical method for determination of starch residues after enzymatic hydrolysis. Different starch sources were liquefaction by α-amylase enzyme Termamyl SC for 25 minutes in autoclave. In the next step were starches solutions enzymatically hydrolysed by enzyme pollulanase Promozyme® for 24 hours to 60°C water bath. Total glucose in starch hydrolysate was determined using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) with ATR accessory with diamante crystal by recording the absorption of different carbohydrate in spectral range from 700 - 4000 cm-1. Based on calibration curves of glucose the release of total glucose in hydrolysates was calculated.