The aim of paper is to analyze household consumption in EU countries in the 21st century. The two hypotheses posited have been confirmed. The start of the 21st century saw an increase in consumer spending in EU households and reduction in the disparities between households of different countries. At the end of the first decade there was a stabilization in consumer spending. The differences in consumption between households can be considered as a) the effect of freedom of choice, and b) a consequence of specific restrictions that do not allow for an appropriate level of funds to meet household needs. Households with the most favourable situation are located in the United Kingdom and Austria. The most unfavourable situation can be observed in the households of Estonia, Latvia, Poland, Romania and Bulgaria.
This paper analyzes the level of innovation expenditures and R&D fund sources in selected countries of the world in the period of 2000 - 2010. The issues presented indicate significant differences between the discussed countries with respect to the factors analyzed. The European countries at the top were apparently Finland, Denmark and Sweden. High R&D expenditures, with a significant share in business enterprise sector, and a large number of patent applications reflected on the strong economic growth in these countries. The level of R&D investments in these countries was sometimes greater than in the USA or Japan. Dynamic growth in both R&D and patent activity has also been observed in South Korea. Special attention has been paid in this paper to the new European Union members - Central Eastern European Countries. Among this group of countries Slovenia definitely had the highest position, where R&D expenditures were the largest and the structure of R&D funds by source reflected a businessdominance type. Estonia, Czech Republic and Hungary were the countries ‘catching up’ - where growth in R&D expenditures has been observed as well as better dynamics of growth and higher patent activity. Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Latvia had relatively disadvantageous situations in respect of R&D development and the innovative activity of business enterprises.
The age of household members is an important factor for expenditures. The aim of the study is to investigate the level of expenditure on restaurants and hotels incurred in Polish households of the elderly in 2004-2013 and to identify the factors affecting such expenditures. The source of information used in the study was the household budget survey of the Central Statistical Office of Poland. The main methods used in this study were variance analysis and regression analysis. Restaurants and hotels expenditure increases every year together with their share in total household expenditure. The most important factors affecting the restaurants and hotels spending in Polish households of the elderly are: income per capita and the level of education of the head of the family. The study on consumption determinants at different groups leads to better understanding of consumer behavior circumstances and thereby ensuring a good quality of life for the people of the elderly.
After joining the European Union in 2004, the post-communist countries have dramatically changed their structure of expenditure for medical services. The cause of this is legislative and ownership changes in the new economy. The study analyzed the expenditure on medical services in the European Union with a special focus on Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. The European Union countries were divided into clusters using different methods, that is, Ward’s, Two Step and Centroid Clustering. In the paper, the structure and changes in health expenses were presented according to the types of expenditures over the years 2004-2015. Countries were assigned to clusters based on three variables: medical products, appliances and equipment, outpatient services and hospital services. Variables were considered as a percentage of household budget. In Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, there is a clear increase in the outpatient services spending compared to the hospital services expenditure.
The article presents a problem and differences of financial liquidity and profitability. The survey of financial liquidity and profitability, underwritten by the College of Economics and Social Sciences of Warsaw University of Technology, was conducted on Płock Subregion enterprises. The survey concerned cash flow management, receivables controlling, trade credits, different payments and receivables. The results of the conducted survey indicate that the majority of companies from the subregion of Płock suffer several problems and despite a wide range of possibilities of using different tools for the management of receivables, the respondents do not use them efficiently. The survey has shown that most of them applies only the most popular, simplest and cheapest solutions, but, consequently the least efficient.
The aim of the paper is the analysis of the household use of durables in Poland and other European countries. Relatively, the highest amount of money for household furnishing with durables was spent by the Bulgarians and the Italians (more than 7% of the total household expenses). In Poland, the highest expenditure occurred for the wealthiest households and those where the head of the household had a university degree while the least money was spent in numerous-family households. The best equipped households (quantity wise) were such that had one or two children and those where the household head had a university degree. The cluster analysis allowed distinguishing household groups of similar durables ownership level. These groups may be treated as consumer segments. The presented analyses also indicate the trends of the Polish consumers regarding the possession of durables.