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Marlena Bartczak

A Notional Level of Cognitive Distortions in Depression: Does It Exist? A Voice for Interdisciplinarity in Studying Cognitive Functioning of Individuals with Depressive Disorders

This aritcle raises the problem of cognitive depressive distortions observed at the notional level. It relates to recent neuropsychological, psychological, and linguistic studies, taking an interdisciplinary theoretical perspective, and illustrating the advantages of interdisciplinarity in modern psycholinguistic projects. It shows that, generally, the notional level has been neglected in psychopathological and psychological research on depressive functioning. The problem is described with reference to linguistic and psycholinguistic theories linking language with cognition. Particular emphasis is devoted to theories and methods of metaphorical processing analysis which, taking into account the similarities between cognitive functions engaged in understanding metaphors, and those disordered as a result of depression, seem to be an adequate frame to study the problem. The text ends with a proposal of an interdisciplinary research project dedicated to the study of metaphorical conceptualizations of some notions created by people suffering from depression.

Open access

Marlena Bartczak

Metaphorical conceptualization of some notions in depressive disorders: Is PLEASURE an insipid milky jelly?

The study concerned the process of metaphor creation in a group of depressive and of non-depressive people. It was assumed that due to some deficits in working memory and inhibition processes, depressive people would have difficulties with metaphorical processing and would produce fewer metaphors than do healthy individuals. It was also presumed that subjects with depression as compared to non-depressive individuals would produce more metaphors for negative notions, and generally would create more negative metaphors, independently of the semantics and valence of a notion. The results obtained in this study aren't univocal. However, it seems that there exists a tendency to produce a smaller number of metaphors in depressive people (especially concerning the notion of FUTURE), which could indicate the existence of some difficulties in metaphorical processing connected with depression. Furthermore, depressive subjects produced more negative metaphors for some notions but not for all of them. This points to the need of attention to semantics in studies on the mechanisms of metaphorical processing in a group of depressive people.

Open access

Marlena Bartczak

Abstract

Much evidence from theory and research points towards difficulties in processing metaphors by elderly people. These difficulties are usually associated with working memory and inhibitory control deficits observed in this age group, as these very functions play a crucial part in efficient metaphor processing. However, results of research on understanding metaphorical content by elderly people are inconclusive. The following article reviews studies showing that metaphor processing relies on a set of complex variables, which might explain the inconclusiveness of previous results. Though we acknowledge the role of interindividual factors (differences in cognitive functioning among the elderly), we focus on the properties of the metaphor stimuli themselves, especially those of conventionalization and valence, as they might influence the processing of verbal metaphors by people in older age groups.

Open access

Barbara Bokus, Marlena Bartczak, Agnieszka Szymańska, Renata Chronowska and Agnieszka Ważyńska

Abstract

We propose a new method to measure distances between different I-positions in internal dialogue. Subjects facing and then making a major life decision via internal dialogue can indicate the places of different voices in the dialogical self’s structure. The subjects’ task is to assign a place to themselves (narrator I) and their imaginary interlocutors at a round table. The Dialogical Self's Round Table (DSRT) task, a modified form of the Semantic Distance Task (SDT; Bartczak & Bokus, 2013, 2017), was designed so that the distances between the different I-positions could be coded numerically. Presenting the method of the DSRT, we will answer the question of which voices are activated the most often in internal dialogues, and which voices can be heard the most often from different locations at the round table. We will also analyze where the subjects place the voices they consider to be the most important.