Marko Kostovski, Zoran Gucev, Velibor Tasic and Momir Polenakovic
Background: Obesity is the most common chronic metabolic disease in children and adolescents. It has reached epidemic ranges and is a significant global problem.
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the possible metabolic disturbances in children and adolescents with obesity and severe obesity.
Subjects and methods: This cross-sectional study included 158 (82 boys, 76 girls) obese children and adolescents between ages of 0 and 17years (10.43 ± 3.11 years). The obesity was defined according to the sex- and age-specific growth charts proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as BMI ≥ 95th percentile. Severe obesity was classified as 120% of the 95th percentile for age and sex. Study participants underwent medical assessment and analysis of: ALT, AST, fasting serum triglycerides, total serum cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose and plasma glucose from oral glucose tolerance test.
Results: The majority of study participants were severely obese (69.92%). The highest distribution of abnormal biochemical results was seen in elevated ALT (53.91%) followed by elevated triglycerides (34.75%). The prevalence of abnormal total cholesterol level was significantly higher (p=0.04) in the group of obese children compared to the severely obese children. The levels of total cholesterol were also statistically higher in the group of adolescents compared to preadolescents (p=0.02). An important number of obese patients (2.5%) and even higher number of severely obese patients (5.26%) had carbohydrate intolerance.
Conclusion: There was a significant elevation of ALT, total serum cholesterol and triglycerides in all study participants. High serum lipids and high hepatic enzymes (as introduction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) are alarming. Strikingly, there was carbohydrate intolerance in an important number of patients. Treatment and education of patients and parents is mandatory. Preventive measures in the society concerning childhood obesity are necessary.
Marko Kostovski, Velibor Tasic, Nevena Laban, Momir Polenakovic, Dragan Danilovski and Zoran Gucev
Obesity and excess weight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. Childhood obesity is also widespread in Macedonia. Metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia and carbohydrate intolerance are found in significant numbers. Parents and grandparents are often obese. Some of the children are either dysmorphic, or slightly retarded. We have already described patients with Prader-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome or WAGR syndrome. A genetic screening for mutations in monogenic obesity in children with early, rapid-onset or severe obesity, severe hyperphagia, hypogonadism, intestinal dysfunction, hypopigmentation of hair and skin, postprandial hypoglycaemia, diabetes insipidus, abnormal leptin level and coexistence of lean and obese siblings in the family discovers many genetic forms of obesity. There are about 30 monogenic forms of obesity. In addition, obesity is different in ethnic groups, and the types of monogenic obesity differ. In brief, an increasing number of genes and genetic mechanisms in children continue to be discovered. This sheds new light on the molecular mechanisms of obesity and potentially gives a target for new forms of treatment.
Milena S. Pandrc, Anđelka Ristić, Vanja Kostovski, Marko Stanković, Vladimir Antić, Jelena Milin-Lazović and Jasmina Ćirić
Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as high TSH and normal thyroxine. Data on the effects of early substitution by levothyroxine on psychophysical health in SCH are still not consistent enough to support its introduction.
Methods: Clinical parameters, biochemical data and quality of life (Short Form 36 questionnaire) were measured before the intervention and 3 months after the euthyroid state had been achieved in SCH patients.
Results: Significant reduction in body weight (p=0.030), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.024, p=0.019), homocysteine (p<0.001), leukocytes and neutrophils (p=0.011, p=0.001), INR (p=0.049), K levels (p=0.040, p=0.013), HbA1c (p=0.001), fasting insulin (p<0.001) and insulin resistance measured by HOMA index (p<0.001), lipid parameters (total cholesterol (p<0.001), LDL-cholesterol (p<0.001), triglycerides (p=0.007), apoB (p=0.022), Lp(a) (p<0.001), LDL/HDL (p=0.008), LAP (p=0.04) and apoB/apoA1 ratios (p<0.023)), TSH (p<0.001) and tAbs (p<0.001) was recorded. Frequency of fatty liver (20% to 2.9%, p=0.016), hyperlipidemia (85% to 65.7%, p=0.001) and metabolic syndrome (34.3% to 2.9%, p=0.070) significantly decreased. A statistically significant positive association was found between the average dose of levothyroxine and changes in physical functioning (r=0.391, p=0.020), vitality (r=0.393, p=0.020), mental health (r=0.374, p=0.027) and overall dimensions of mental health (r=0.376, p=0.026). With increasing doses of levothyroxine, the previously listed scores of SF 36 grew (r=0.296, p=0.084).
Conclusions: Early substitution of SCH improved the many clinical and biochemical parameters related to cardiovascular risk. Quality of life was also improved, and correlated only with thyroxine doses suggesting an indirect relationship between the degree of hypothyroidism and quality of life.