Dejavniki Tveganega Pitja Alkohola Pri Slovenskih Starostnikih: Kvalitativna Raziskava
Uvod: Način pitja alkohola v različnih življenjskih obdobjih se lahko prenese tudi v starost. Tretjina do polovica starejših ljudi, ki so zasvojeni z alkoholom, prične s tveganim ali škodljivim pitjem v srednjih letih ali pozneje. Z raziskavo smo želeli orisati značilnosti pitja alkohola pri starejši populaciji ter ugotoviti dejavnike tveganja in varovalne dejavnike za tvegano ali škodljivo pitje alkohola. Preučevali smo, kako se starejši uprejo spodbujanju k pitju alkohola, in v kolikšni meri poznajo meje za manj tvegano pitje alkohola.
Metode: V raziskavi smo uporabili kvalitativno metodologijo. Preučevali smo varovance dveh domov starejših oseb in oblikovali štiri fokusne skupine. Pogovore smo snemali ter jih nato zapisali in analizirali. Oblikovali smo tudi kategorije dejavnikov, ki so povezani s tveganim pitjem alkohola.
Rezultati: Starostniki, ki tudi v starosti nadaljujejo s pitjem alkohola, so imeli zgodnje izkušnje s prekomernim pitjem alkohola. V večini primerov so pitju botrovali vzroki, kot so izgube (staršev), težko telesno delo, pomanjkanje hrane, finančne stiske ter velika dostopnost alkohola v okolju. Vzroki prekomernega pitja, ki se začne v starejšem življenjskem obdobju, pa so zlasti povezani z izgubo partnerja ali s poslabšanjem socialno-ekonomskega položaja. Ustrezna vzgoja, socialna mreža, v kateri pitje alkohola ni navada, ter kronične zdravstvene težave so se izkazale kot dejavniki, ki varujejo pred prekomernim pitjem v starosti. Ugotovili smo, da starostniki slabo poznajo priporočila za manj tvegano pitje alkohola in jim tudi ne pripisujejo večjega pomena.
Zaključki: Z boljšim vpogledom v stališča starostnikov lahko oblikujemo bolj učinkovite javnozdravstvene programe za preprečevanje tveganega ali škodljivega pitja v tej populaciji. Ugotovitve raziskave so lahko v pomoč pri usmerjenem vodenju pogovora, ki je ob fizikalnem pregledu v ambulanti družinske medicine ključnega pomena za prepoznavanje tveganega in škodljivega pitja alkohola pri starejših.
Background. Hazardous and harmful alcohol drinking is an important health, social and economic issue in Slovenia amongst all age groups. While drinking in Slovenia has been well researched amongst elementary and high school students, there is a lack of research on drinking amongst university students.
Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study among first- and fourth-year students of the University of Maribor, Slovenia, attending the mandatory preventive health check between October 2009 and May 2010. During this health check, they filled in a non-anonymous lifestyle questionnaire. AUDIT-C questionnaire on alcohol use and questions on smoking and illicit drug use were also included.
Results. 3.130 students were included in the analysis, 1219 (38.9%) were males. There were 871 (27.8%) students that were screened as risky drinkers. The highest percentage of risky drinkers attended the Faculty for Wood Technology and the lowest the Faculty for Health Sciences. Students, recognized as healthier by the physicians, reported risky drinking significantly less often (p=0.015). Students with higher BMI reported risky drinking significantly more often (p=0.012). Variables, proved to be independently associated with the risky drinking in the multivariate analysis, were: bad health status (p=0.044), male sex (p<0.001), daily consumption of fried food (p=0.017), smoking (p<0.001), illicit drugs (p<0.001), attending the Faculty for Civil Engineering (p=0.006), not attending the Faculty for Health Sciences (p=0.002)
Conclusions. While the prevalence of risky drinking among students in this study is high, a structured preventive programme should be implemented for students,which will include also illicit drug use and smoking.
Izhodišča: Pitje alkohola je precej velik slovenski problem; še posebej so izpostavljeni mladi pivci. Pomembne so preventivne in intervencijske metode v populaciji študentov, a v Sloveniji to področje še ni dovolj razvito. Sistematični pregled literature ponuja vpogled v raziskovanje tega problema drugod po svetu in osvetljuje to področje pri nas.
Metode: Iz treh različnih baz (PubMED, Cochrane in PsychINFO) smo s pomočjo ključnih besed (alcohol drinking/ consumption/abuse, prevention and control, students, intervention(s)) izbrali izvirne članke v angleškem jeziku. Nanašali so se na mlade, stare od 18 do 25 let; obravnavali so vedenje glede pitja alkohola in vsebovali preventivne ali intervencijske dejavnosti.
Rezultati: Za prenos intervencij moramo poznati okolje, družbo in družbeni razvoj. Za učinkovite ukrepe so se pokazali: presejanje, kratki ukrepi ob ugotovljenem tveganem pitju (individualni in prek svetovnega spleta), motivacijski razgovori, spodbujanje mladih k idejam o nepitju alkohola, nadzor nad porabo alkohola znotraj študentskih naselij, povišanje cen alkoholnih pijač, omejitev oglaševanja in reorganizacija vplivov na spremembe vrednot, ki vplivajo na porabo alkohola.
Zaključki: Specifičnost mlade/študentske populacije predstavlja izziv in dobro naložbo za prihodnost.
Background: Information and communication technology (ICT) and paperless practices have been shown to improve “existing processes in the workplace” “as well as being an important component of modern primary healthcare”. The aim of our study was to analyse the attitudes of health-care professionals and patients with regard to paperless practice and the most frequently used information and communication technology tools in Slovenian primary healthcare.
Methods and participants: Qualitative methodology using focus groups of 22 primary care physicians, 14 nurses and 18 patients.
Results: The areas recognised by all participants as important for further information and communication technology development were: computer-supported decision making, accessibility and completeness of personal e-health data, emergency cases, support for chronic disease management, ICT related time savings, e-prescriptions and e-discharge letters. The most important identified barriers impeding the use of ICT were: the heavy workload of primary care physicians and nurses, health insurance reimbursement rules and duplication of work using both paper and electronic health records.
Conclusions: This study highlighted a number of strengths of ICT use in primary care as well as numerous areas where changes in procedures and improvement of ICT tools to support them are needed.
Background. Hazardous and harmful alcohol drinking is an important health, social and economic issue in Slovenia, also amongst adolescents and young adults. While drinking in Slovenia has been well researched amongst elementary and high school students, there exists a lack of research on drinking amongst young adults attending university. Methods. Cross sectional study. First year students of the University of Ljubljana attending the mandatory preventive health check between October 2009 and May 2010 filled out a non-anonymous lifestyle questionnaire. AUDIT-C screening questionnaire on alcohol use and questions on smoking and illicit drug use were also included. Multivariate and multilevel methods were used to analyse the data. Results. 7221 students filled out the questionnaire, of those 38.5 % male and 61.5 % female. 87.3 % of students have drunk alcohol at some point in the last year. Amongst the students, 23.1 % were hazardous or harmful drinkers. 61.4 % of students have been drunk at least once in the last year. 11.8 % of the students were abstainers. Male students, smokers and students with drug experience have higher odds of being harmful or hazardous drinkers. Student level variables account for most of the variability in harmful and hazardous drinking; only 2 % of the variability was due to differences across universities. Conclusions. Students of the University of Ljubljana drank alcohol in large quantities. There was a marked link between hazardous drinking, smoking and drug use. Results of this study show the need for the formation of suitable preventive measures that would change drinking behaviour amongst the student population.
Alcohol consumption in Slovenia is one of the highest in Europe. In Slovenia there were a few epidemiological studies on drinking habits among adult population, but none of them has used the AUDIT questionnaire or the Internet for research.
The aim of this study was to analyse the drinking habits of the visitors of our website www.nalijem.si, which included an anonymous questionnaire for self-assessment of alcohol drinking.
A cross sectional survey was conducted between January 2010 and December 2013. The front page of our website included an invitation to fill in the anonymous web-based questionnaire; a part of it was the AUDIT 10 questionnaire. Everyone who filled in the questionnaire completely received an individualized feedback on his drinking.
54.020 persons visited our website, 15.817 (29.3%) of them started to fill in the questionnaire, 12.800 (80.9%) filled it in completely. In the analysis, 9.087 (71.0%) persons were included who completed the questionnaire for themselves. There were 37.1% (N=3.373) women and 62.9% (N=5.714) men. The average age was 33 years, the majority was employed (59.7%, N=5.222). The minority drank alcohol 2-4 times per month (32.8%, N=2.977) and most of them (64.5%, N=5.869) drank more than 3 units of alcohol per one occasion on a typical day. The average AUDIT 10 score was 11.7 for men, 8.1 for women.
A large percentage of participants were identified as hazardous and harmful drinkers, which should be a matter of serious concern.