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Open access

Piotr Jankowski-Mihułowicz and Mariusz Węglarski

Abstract

The operation of an anti-collision RFID system is characterized by the interrogation zone which should be estimated in any direction of 3D space for a group of electronic transponders. The interrogation zone should be as large as possible. However, the many problems in this area are due to the fact that energy can be transferred to transponders only on a limited distance. The greatest flexibility in developing RFID applications and shaping the interrogation zone can be achieved using the system with an antenna multiplexer. Therefore the problem of the interrogation zone determination in HF RFID systems with two orthogonal RWD antennas is presented in the paper. The perceived issues have been effectively dealt with and the solution has been proposed on the basis of the elaborated model. Conducted studies have been used to develop the software tool JankoRFIDmuxHF in the Mathcad environment. The research results are analysed in an example system configuration. The specialized measuring stand has been used for experimental verification of the identification efficiency. The convergence of the measurements and calculations confirms a practical usefulness of the presented concept of interrogation zone determination in anti-collision systems. It also shows the practical utility of the developed model and software tools.

Open access

Piotr Jankowski-Mihułowicz and Mariusz Węglarski

Abstract

The operating principles of RFID antennas should be considered differently than it is applied in the classical theory of radio communication systems. The procedure of measuring the radiation pattern of antennas that could be applied to RFID transponders operating in the UHF band is seldom discussed correctly in the scientific literature. The problem consists in the variability of the RFID chip impedance that strongly influences measurement results. The authors propose the proper methodology for determining the radiation pattern with respect to an individual transponder as well as an electronically tagged object. The advantage of the solution consists in the possibility of using components of different measuring systems that are available in typical antenna laboratories. The proposed procedure is particularly important in terms of parameter validation - the identification efficiency and costs of an RFID system implementation can be evaluated properly only on the basis of real values of considered parameters.

Open access

Piotr Jankowski-Mihułowicz, Grzegorz Pitera and Mariusz Węglarski

Abstract

The authors paid particular attention to the problem of antenna impedance measurements in the RFID technique. These measurements have to be realized by using two ports of a vector network analyzer and dedicated passive differential probes. Since the measurement process and estimated parameters depend on the frequency band, operating conditions, type of the system component and antenna designs used, appropriate verification of the impedance parameters on the basis of properly conducted experiments is a crucial stage in the antenna synthesis of transponders and read/write devices. Accordingly, a systematized procedure of impedance measurements is proposed. It can be easily implemented by designers preparing antennas for different kinds of RFID applications. The essence of indirect measurements of the differential impedance parameters is discussed in details. The experimental verification has been made on the basis of a few representative examples.

Open access

Grzegorz Tomaszewski, Piotr Jankowski-Mihułowicz, Mariusz Węglarski and Wojciech Lichoń

Abstract

The results of technological investigations in the scope of inkjet-printed flexible RFID antennas dedicated to UHF transponders and also problems with the application of nanomaterials are reported in this paper. The design of the antenna electrical circuit and the parameters of the inkjet printing process were elaborated on the basis of the numerical model prepared in the Mentor Graphics HyperLynx 3D EM software. The project evaluation was performed by measuring electrical parameters of the structures printed with silver-based conductive inks. The obtained results confirm coincidence between the model and its implementation in the inkjet printing technology. Finally, the prepared antenna has been applied in an RFID transponder of UHF band and the functional tests are also reported in this paper.

Open access

Piotr Jankowski-Mihułowicz, Wojciech Lichoń and Mariusz Węglarski

Abstract

The new numerical model of directional radiation pattern, in which part of energy is emitted in side and back lobs, has been presented in this paper. The model input values are determined on the base of primary parameters that can be read from the datasheet of used antennas. The special software tool NmAntPat has been elaborated to carry out the described task. The elaborated model, program and output files can be easily implemented into an analysis of radio wave propagation phenomenon in any algorithms and numerical calculations. The comparison of the graphical plots that have been obtained on the base of measurements, producers’ data specification notes and modelling results confirms the model correctness.

Open access

Piotr Jankowski-Mihułowicz, Damian Kawalec and Mariusz Węglarski

Abstract

The interrogation zone IZ is the most important parameter when RFID systems are considered. Its predictability is determined by the construction and parameters of antenna built in a read/write device. The IZ should be of sufficient size and appropriate to requirements established for an application of object automated identification. The method of shaping an antenna radiation pattern provides effective yet unconventional opportunities in this area. The idea and practical solution of the phased antenna array dedicated to UHF read/write devices are presented in the paper. On the basis of tests carried out, the authors pointed out the possibility of using developed devices for the synthesis of a determined IZ in anti-collision RFID system.

Open access

Piotr Jankowski-Mihułowicz, Damian Kawalec, Mariusz Węglarski and Wojciech Lichoń

Abstract

An attempt to increase the geometric size of the interrogation zone in UHF RFID systems with a phased array antenna is presented in this paper. The interrogation zone should be as large as possible. However, energy can be transferred to transponders only to a limited distance. The greatest flexibility in developing RFID applications and shaping the interrogation zone can be achieved using a phased array antenna. The perceived issues have been effectively dealt with and the solution has been proposed on the basis of an elaborated model. Conducted studies have been used to develop a software tool in the Mathcad environment. The research results are analyzed in detail for different system configurations and can be implemented in practical projects to be developed in cooperation with the industry.

Open access

Piotr Jankowski-Mihułowicz, Wojciech Lichoń, Grzegorz Pitera and Mariusz Węglarski

Abstract

The complete methodology of designing T- and modified ring resonators in the UHF band are presented in the paper. On the basis of proposed algorithms, the dedicated software tool has been elaborated in order to determine material parameters of contemporary substrates. The program is implemented in the Mathcad environment and it includes the base of information on known materials used in electronic products. Also, test sample series for selected substrate materials (IS680, FR408, I-SPEED PCB ISOLA and A6-S LTCC FERRO) and operating frequencies from 1 GHz to 3 GHz are analyzed in details. The special test stand with a vector network analyzer has been applied in experiments. The obtained data of relative permittivity measurements and model calculations are described, discussed and concluded.