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Mariusz Kowalski

Abstract

The contribution of Poles to the colonisation and development of the Dutch Cape Colony is not commonly known. Yet, Poles have been appearing in this colony since its very inception (1652). During the entire period considered here the presence of Poles was the result of the strong economic ties between Poland and the Netherlands. At the end of this period there was an increase in their share, in connection with the presence of numerous alien military units on the territory of the Colony, because of Poles having served in these units. Numerous newcomers from Poland settled in South Africa for good, established families, and their progeny made up part of the local society. The evidence of this phenomenon is provided by the present-day Afrikaner families of, for instance, Drotsky, Kitshoff, Kolesky, Latsky, Masuriek, Troskie, Zowitsky, and others. A quite superficial estimation implies that the settlers coming from Poland could make up a bit over 1% of the ancestors of the present-day Afrikaners. Poles would also participate in the pioneering undertakings within the far-off fringes of the Colony, including the robbery-and-trade expedition of 1702.

Open access

Mariusz Kowalski

Abstract

The paper shows a typical drive systems used in today's vehicles, mainly cars. Approximated scheme of the formation of the driving force of the vehicle and the necessary mathematical relations for the calculation. For example, a typical passenger car BMW 320 was analyzed and calculations obtained a driving force, of adhesion and acceleration. The calculations were performed for the drive system, the classical (i.e. the rear axle of the vehicle) for front-wheel drive and four-wheel drive (4×4). Virtually assumed that to the above mentioned vehicle it is possible buildings of each of said system. These are shown graphically in diagrams bearing a distribution of the forces acting on the substrate and the reactions - the data necessary for the calculations. The resulting calculation is graphically shown in the diagrams, in which is illustrated a change value of the resulting adhesive strength, and the acceleration depending on the drive type vehicle.

Open access

Bartosz Kowalski, Jacek Bierca, Jan Zmora, Małgorzata Kołodziejczak, Anna Kosim and Mariusz Frączek

Usefulness of Electrosurgical Techniques in Thyroid Gland Surgery

Wide propagation of new generation of electrosurgical devices such as bipolar vessel sealing systems (eg. Thermostapler® by EMED) enabled seamless closing of blood vessels with a diameter up to 7 mm while maintaining the necessary safety margin, as well as reducing the duration of the operation. We decided to verify these reports in our material.

Aim of the study was comparison of thyroid surgery performed with the electrocautery tool - Thermostapler ® by EMED with surgery using classic hemostasis technique to evaluate the operative time and complications in the form of bleeding, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, symptoms of hypoparathyroidism, and wound infection.

Material and methods. We retrospectively analyzed 256 patients operated in the Department of General and Proctological Surgery Solec Hospital in Warsaw due to inert thyroid goitre. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 126 patients operated in 2000, using classic techniques of hemostasis. While the second group consisted of 130 patients operated in 2007-2008 with Thermostapler®. We compared duration of surgery and the incidence of postoperative complications.

Results. The operative time was significantly shorter (average 18 minutes) in the second group of patients. We also recorded a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of complications in the group operated with Thermostapler.

Conclusions. Use of bipolar vessel sealing system in a decisive manner shortens the duration of operation. Use of bipolar vessel sealing system also enables a radical reduction in the incidence of complications rate such as bleeding, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, symptoms of hypoparathyroidism, and wound infection. In the future, similar studies should be performed to assess the real costs resulting from the use Thermostapler®.